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Hofmann, J; Greter, M; Du Pasquier, L; Becher, B (2010). B-cells need a proper house, whereas T-cells are happy in a cave: the dependence of lymphocytes on secondary lymphoid tissues during evolution. Trends in Immunology, 31(4):144-153.

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A fundamental tenet of immunology is that adaptive immune responses are initiated in secondary lymphoid tissues. This dogma has been challenged by several recent reports. We discuss how successful T cell-mediated immunity can be initiated outside of such dedicated structures, whereas they are required for adaptive humoral immunity. This resembles an ancient immune pathway in the oldest cold-blooded vertebrates, which lack lymph nodes and sophisticated B-cell responses including optimal affinity maturation. The T-cell, however, has retained the capacity to recognize antigen in a lymph node-free environment. Besides bone marrow and lung, the liver is one organ that can potentially serve as a surrogate lymphoid organ and could represent a remnant from the time before lymph nodes developed.


25 citations in Web of Science®
28 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Experimental Immunology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Deposited On:10 Feb 2011 14:14
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:45
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:10.1016/j.it.2010.01.003
PubMed ID:20181529

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