UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Folding and unfolding mechanism of highly stable full-consensus ankyrin repeat proteins


Wetzel, S K; Settanni, G; Kenig, M; Binz, H K; Plückthun, A (2008). Folding and unfolding mechanism of highly stable full-consensus ankyrin repeat proteins. Journal of Molecular Biology, 376(1):241-257.

Abstract

Full-consensus designed ankyrin repeat proteins were designed with one to six identical repeats flanked by capping repeats. These proteins express well in Escherichia coli as soluble monomers. Compared to our previously described designed ankyrin repeat protein library, randomized positions have now been fixed according to sequence statistics and structural considerations. Their stability increases with length and is even higher than that of library members, and those with more than three internal repeats are resistant to denaturation by boiling or guanidine hydrochloride. Full denaturation requires their heating in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride. The folding and unfolding kinetics of the proteins with up to three internal repeats were analyzed, as the other proteins could not be denatured. Folding is monophasic, with a rate that is nearly identical for all proteins ( approximately 400-800 s(-1)), indicating that essentially the same transition state must be crossed, possibly the folding of a single repeat. In contrast, the unfolding rate decreases by a factor of about 10(4) with increasing repeat number, directly reflecting thermodynamic stability in these extraordinarily slow denaturation rates. The number of unfolding phases also increases with repeat number. We analyzed the folding thermodynamics and kinetics both by classical two-state and three-state cooperative models and by an Ising-like model, where repeats are considered as two-state folding units that can be stabilized by interacting with their folded nearest neighbors. This Ising model globally describes both equilibrium and kinetic data very well and allows for a detailed explanation of the ankyrin repeat protein folding mechanism.

Full-consensus designed ankyrin repeat proteins were designed with one to six identical repeats flanked by capping repeats. These proteins express well in Escherichia coli as soluble monomers. Compared to our previously described designed ankyrin repeat protein library, randomized positions have now been fixed according to sequence statistics and structural considerations. Their stability increases with length and is even higher than that of library members, and those with more than three internal repeats are resistant to denaturation by boiling or guanidine hydrochloride. Full denaturation requires their heating in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride. The folding and unfolding kinetics of the proteins with up to three internal repeats were analyzed, as the other proteins could not be denatured. Folding is monophasic, with a rate that is nearly identical for all proteins ( approximately 400-800 s(-1)), indicating that essentially the same transition state must be crossed, possibly the folding of a single repeat. In contrast, the unfolding rate decreases by a factor of about 10(4) with increasing repeat number, directly reflecting thermodynamic stability in these extraordinarily slow denaturation rates. The number of unfolding phases also increases with repeat number. We analyzed the folding thermodynamics and kinetics both by classical two-state and three-state cooperative models and by an Ising-like model, where repeats are considered as two-state folding units that can be stabilized by interacting with their folded nearest neighbors. This Ising model globally describes both equilibrium and kinetic data very well and allows for a detailed explanation of the ankyrin repeat protein folding mechanism.

Citations

97 citations in Web of Science®
99 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

69 downloads since deposited on 29 Oct 2008
19 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Biochemistry
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Biochemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:protein folding; Ising model; ankyrin repeat proteins
Language:English
Date:8 February 2008
Deposited On:29 Oct 2008 15:55
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:31
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0022-2836
Publisher DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.11.046
PubMed ID:18164721
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-4812

Download

[img]
Preview
Filetype: PDF
Size: 2MB
View at publisher

TrendTerms

TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents.
You can navigate and zoom the map. Mouse-hovering a term displays its timeline, clicking it yields the associated documents.

Author Collaborations