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Emergence of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in southern Switzerland


Malacrida, F; Hegglin, D; Bacciarini, L; Otranto, D; Nägeli, F; Nägeli, C; Bernasconi, C; Scheu, U; Balli, A; Marenco, M; Togni, L; Deplazes, P; Schnyder, M (2008). Emergence of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in southern Switzerland. Veterinary Parasitology, 157(3-4):321-327.

Abstract

In Europe, Thelazia callipaeda has been reported in Italy and France in the eyes of dogs, cats and foxes and, recently, also in humans. In southern Switzerland (Ticino), the first case of T. callipaeda in a dog was detected in 2000 and because of an increasing number of dog thelaziosis, a survey in veterinary practices was carried out. A total of 106 Thelazia-positive dogs from a retrospective analysis and from ongoing cases between 2005 and 2007 as well as five positive cats were reported. For a cross-sectional study, 529 randomly selected dogs (from six veterinary practices), to which anaesthesia was given for other medical reasons, were additionally checked for the presence of adult specimens of Thelazia in 2006: 28 dogs were found positive indicating an overall prevalence of 5.3%. Thelazia-infection was furthermore diagnosed in 7 of 126 foxes (5.6%) shot in Ticino in winter 2005-2006. Affected foxes, dogs and cats originated from the same regions up to 863m of altitude. The cats and 57.9% (55/95) of the infected dogs had never crossed the Swiss border. Collected nematodes were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda, and this diagnosis was confirmed by the analysis of a part of the sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), revealing haplotype 1, the only one so far found in Europe. Animals harboured 1-23 eye worms. The most common symptoms were conjunctivitis and epiphora, while keratitis was present only in a low number of animals. Young and small sized dogs were significantly less involved than large animals and over 3 years of age. The results indicate that thelaziosis is endemic in that area.

In Europe, Thelazia callipaeda has been reported in Italy and France in the eyes of dogs, cats and foxes and, recently, also in humans. In southern Switzerland (Ticino), the first case of T. callipaeda in a dog was detected in 2000 and because of an increasing number of dog thelaziosis, a survey in veterinary practices was carried out. A total of 106 Thelazia-positive dogs from a retrospective analysis and from ongoing cases between 2005 and 2007 as well as five positive cats were reported. For a cross-sectional study, 529 randomly selected dogs (from six veterinary practices), to which anaesthesia was given for other medical reasons, were additionally checked for the presence of adult specimens of Thelazia in 2006: 28 dogs were found positive indicating an overall prevalence of 5.3%. Thelazia-infection was furthermore diagnosed in 7 of 126 foxes (5.6%) shot in Ticino in winter 2005-2006. Affected foxes, dogs and cats originated from the same regions up to 863m of altitude. The cats and 57.9% (55/95) of the infected dogs had never crossed the Swiss border. Collected nematodes were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda, and this diagnosis was confirmed by the analysis of a part of the sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), revealing haplotype 1, the only one so far found in Europe. Animals harboured 1-23 eye worms. The most common symptoms were conjunctivitis and epiphora, while keratitis was present only in a low number of animals. Young and small sized dogs were significantly less involved than large animals and over 3 years of age. The results indicate that thelaziosis is endemic in that area.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Language:English
Date:7 November 2008
Deposited On:19 Nov 2008 14:09
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:32
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0304-4017
Publisher DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.07.029
PubMed ID:18774229
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-4870

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