UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Central role of JC virus-specific CD4+ lymphocytes in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome


Aly, L; Yousefi, S; Schippling, S; Jelcic, I; Breiden, P; Matschke, J; Schulz, R; Bofill-Mas, S; Jones, L; Demina, V; Linnebank, M; Ogg, G; Girones, R; Weber, T; Sospedra, M; Martin, R (2011). Central role of JC virus-specific CD4+ lymphocytes in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 134(Pt 9):2687-2702.

Abstract

Progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are caused by infection of the central nervous system with the JC polyoma virus. Both are complications of monoclonal antibody therapy in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. Progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome can obscure the diagnosis of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and lead to severe clinical disability and possibly death. Different from progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy, in which demyelination results from oligodendrocyte lysis by JC virus in the absence of an immune response, tissue destruction in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is caused by a vigorous immune response within the brain. The cells and mediators that are involved in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are as yet poorly understood. We examined two patients with multiple sclerosis, who developed progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and later progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome under natalizumab therapy. Due to initially negative JC viral deoxyribonucleic acid testing in the cerebrospinal fluid, a diagnostic brain biopsy was performed in one patient. Histopathology revealed brain inflammation characterized by a prominent T cell infiltrate (CD4(+)> CD8(+) T cells), but also B/plasma cells and monocytes. Despite very low JC viral load, both patients showed high intrathecal anti-JC virus antibodies. Brain-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells were studied regarding antigen specificity and function. CD4(+) T cells were highly specific for peptides from several JC virus proteins, particularly the major capsid protein VP1. T cell phenotyping revealed CD4(+) Th1 and bifunctional Th1-2 cells. The latter secrete large amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 explaining the strong brain inflammation, presence of plasma cells and secretion of intrathecal anti-VP1 antibodies. The functional phenotype of brain-infiltrating JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cells was confirmed and extended by examining brain-derived JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cell clones. Our data provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and indicate that JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cells play an important role in both eliminating JC virus from the brain, but also in causing the massive inflammation with often fatal outcome.

Progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are caused by infection of the central nervous system with the JC polyoma virus. Both are complications of monoclonal antibody therapy in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. Progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome can obscure the diagnosis of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and lead to severe clinical disability and possibly death. Different from progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy, in which demyelination results from oligodendrocyte lysis by JC virus in the absence of an immune response, tissue destruction in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is caused by a vigorous immune response within the brain. The cells and mediators that are involved in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are as yet poorly understood. We examined two patients with multiple sclerosis, who developed progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and later progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome under natalizumab therapy. Due to initially negative JC viral deoxyribonucleic acid testing in the cerebrospinal fluid, a diagnostic brain biopsy was performed in one patient. Histopathology revealed brain inflammation characterized by a prominent T cell infiltrate (CD4(+)> CD8(+) T cells), but also B/plasma cells and monocytes. Despite very low JC viral load, both patients showed high intrathecal anti-JC virus antibodies. Brain-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells were studied regarding antigen specificity and function. CD4(+) T cells were highly specific for peptides from several JC virus proteins, particularly the major capsid protein VP1. T cell phenotyping revealed CD4(+) Th1 and bifunctional Th1-2 cells. The latter secrete large amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 explaining the strong brain inflammation, presence of plasma cells and secretion of intrathecal anti-VP1 antibodies. The functional phenotype of brain-infiltrating JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cells was confirmed and extended by examining brain-derived JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cell clones. Our data provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and indicate that JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cells play an important role in both eliminating JC virus from the brain, but also in causing the massive inflammation with often fatal outcome.

Citations

31 citations in Web of Science®
30 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

1 download since deposited on 10 Nov 2011
0 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2011
Deposited On:10 Nov 2011 10:20
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:04
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0006-8950
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awr206
PubMed ID:21908874
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-50699

Download

[img]
Content: Published Version
Filetype: PDF - Registered users only
Size: 1MB
View at publisher
[img]
Content: Supplemental Material
Filetype: PDF - Registered users only
Size: 59kB

TrendTerms

TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents.
You can navigate and zoom the map. Mouse-hovering a term displays its timeline, clicking it yields the associated documents.

Author Collaborations