This event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed in such a manner so as to contribute to the present debate on behavioural and functional transfer effects associated with intensive language training. To address this novel issue, we measured professional simultaneous interpreters and control subjects while they performed a non-verbal auditory discrimination task that primarily relies on attention and categorization functions. The fMRI results revealed that the discrimination of the target stimuli was associated with differential blood oxygen level-dependent responses in fronto-parietal regions between the two groups, even though in-scanner behavioural results did not show significant group differences. These findings are in line with previous observations showing the contribution of fronto-parietal regions to auditory attention and categorization functions. Our results imply that language training modulates brain activity in regions involved in the top-down regulation of auditory functions.