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Löwenberg, B; Pabst, T; Vellenga, E; van Putten, W; Schouten, H C; Graux, C; Ferrant, A; Sonneveld, P; Biemond, B J; Gratwohl, A; de Greef, G E; Verdonck, L F; Schaafsma, M R; Gregor, M; Theobald, M; Schanz, U; Maertens, J; Ossenkoppele, G J (2011). Cytarabine dose for acute myeloid leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 364(11):1027-1036.

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BACKGROUND: Cytarabine (ara-C) is an important drug in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High-dose cytarabine (2000 to 3000 mg per square meter of body-surface area) is toxic but results in higher rates of relapse-free survival than does the conventional dose of 100 to 400 mg per square meter. Intermediate dose levels have not been thoroughly evaluated.

METHODS: We compared two induction regimens in patients 18 to 60 years of age (median, 49) who had newly diagnosed AML. The intermediate-dose group, totaling 431 patients, received cytarabine at a dose of 200 mg per square meter given by continuous intravenous infusion for 24 hours during cycle 1 of induction therapy and 1000 mg per square meter by infusion for 3 hours twice daily during cycle 2 of induction therapy. The high-dose group, totaling 429 patients, received a dose-escalated regimen of 1000 mg of cytarabine per square meter every 12 hours in cycle 1 and 2000 mg per square meter twice daily in cycle 2. Patients with a complete response did not receive additional cytarabine but received consolidation therapy in a third cycle of chemotherapy (mitoxantrone-etoposide) or underwent autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Complete remission rates, survival rates, and toxic effects were assessed for each treatment group.

RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 5 years, no significant differences were noted between the intermediate-dose group and the high-dose group with respect to complete remission rates (80% and 82%, respectively), probability of relapse, event-free survival at 5 years (34% and 35%), or overall survival (40% and 42%). High-dose cytarabine provided no clear advantage in any prognostic subgroup. The high-dose treatment resulted in higher incidences of grade 3 and grade 4 toxic effects (in cycle 1), prolonged hospitalization, and delayed neutrophil recovery (in cycle 2) and platelet recovery (in cycles 2 and 3).

CONCLUSIONS: Induction therapy with cytarabine at the lower dose already produced maximal antileukemic effects for all response end points, suggesting a plateau in the dose-response relationship above this dose level. High-dose cytarabine results in excessive toxic effects without therapeutic benefit. (Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR230.).


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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Hematology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Date:17 March 2011
Deposited On:06 Dec 2011 10:51
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:08
Publisher:Massachusetts Medical Society
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1010222
PubMed ID:21410371

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