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A meta-analysis of responses of soil biota to global change


Blankinship, J C; Niklaus, P A; Hungate, B A (2011). A meta-analysis of responses of soil biota to global change. Oecologia, 165(3):553-565.

Abstract

Global environmental changes are expected to impact the abundance of plants and animals aboveground, but comparably little is known about the responses of belowground organisms. Using meta-analysis, we synthe- sized results from over 75 manipulative experiments in order to test for patterns in the effects of elevated CO2, warming, and altered precipitation on the abundance of soil biota related to taxonomy, body size, feeding habits, eco- system type, local climate, treatment magnitude and duration, and greenhouse CO2 enrichment. We found that the positive effect size of elevated CO2 on the abundance of soil biota diminished with time, whereas the negative effect size of warming and positive effect size of precipi- tation intensified with time. Trophic group, body size, and experimental approaches best explained the responses of soil biota to elevated CO2, whereas local climate and ecosystem type best explained responses to warming and altered precipitation. The abundance of microflora and microfauna, and particularly detritivores, increased with elevated CO2, indicative of microbial C limitation under ambient CO2. However, the effects of CO2 were smaller in field studies than in greenhouse studies and were not sig- nificant for higher trophic levels. Effects of warming did not depend on taxon or body size, but reduced abundances were more likely to occur at the colder and drier sites. Precipitation limited all taxa and trophic groups, particu- larly in forest ecosystems. Our meta-analysis suggests that the responses of soil biota to global change are predictable and unique for each global change factor.

Abstract

Global environmental changes are expected to impact the abundance of plants and animals aboveground, but comparably little is known about the responses of belowground organisms. Using meta-analysis, we synthe- sized results from over 75 manipulative experiments in order to test for patterns in the effects of elevated CO2, warming, and altered precipitation on the abundance of soil biota related to taxonomy, body size, feeding habits, eco- system type, local climate, treatment magnitude and duration, and greenhouse CO2 enrichment. We found that the positive effect size of elevated CO2 on the abundance of soil biota diminished with time, whereas the negative effect size of warming and positive effect size of precipi- tation intensified with time. Trophic group, body size, and experimental approaches best explained the responses of soil biota to elevated CO2, whereas local climate and ecosystem type best explained responses to warming and altered precipitation. The abundance of microflora and microfauna, and particularly detritivores, increased with elevated CO2, indicative of microbial C limitation under ambient CO2. However, the effects of CO2 were smaller in field studies than in greenhouse studies and were not sig- nificant for higher trophic levels. Effects of warming did not depend on taxon or body size, but reduced abundances were more likely to occur at the colder and drier sites. Precipitation limited all taxa and trophic groups, particu- larly in forest ecosystems. Our meta-analysis suggests that the responses of soil biota to global change are predictable and unique for each global change factor.

Citations

85 citations in Web of Science®
93 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Soil organisms, Soil food webs, Trophic structure, Body size, Elevated carbon dioxide, Warming, Altered precipitation
Language:English
Date:2011
Deposited On:12 Dec 2011 11:59
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:12
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0029-8549
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-1909-0
PubMed ID:21274573

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