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Echocardiography in Saanen-goats: Normal findings, reference intervals in awake goats, and the effect of general anesthesia


Steininger, K; Berli, A S J; Jud, R; Schwarzwald, C C (2011). Echocardiography in Saanen-goats: Normal findings, reference intervals in awake goats, and the effect of general anesthesia. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 153(12):553-564.

Abstract

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structures, dimensions, and mechanical function in goats is poorly documented. The goal of this study was to describe normal findings, establish normal values for two-dimensional (2DE) and M-mode (MME) echocardiography, and investigate the influence of general anaesthesia. Standardized 2DE and MME recordings were obtained on 22 healthy female Saanen goats (3.7 ± 1.1 years [mean ± SD], 60.2 ± 10.6 kg) awake (standing) and during isoflurane anesthesia (sternal recumbency). Cardiac dimensions and function were assessed and compared between treatments (awake vs. anaesthetized). Color Doppler imaging and saline contrast studies served to assess abnormal blood flow patterns. Post mortem examination was performed in a subset of 12 goats. Transthoracic echocardiography was feasible in all goats. Indices of LV systolic function proved to be significantly increased during general anesthesia. The membranous and occasionally echolucent appearance of the oval fossa suggested abnormal interatrial communication in 9 goats. Color Doppler imaging and saline contrast studies proved to be inaccurate to detect interatrial shunting of blood. Post mortem examination confirmed small persistent foramen ovale in only 3 out of 7 goats, in which it had been suspected on echocardiography.

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structures, dimensions, and mechanical function in goats is poorly documented. The goal of this study was to describe normal findings, establish normal values for two-dimensional (2DE) and M-mode (MME) echocardiography, and investigate the influence of general anaesthesia. Standardized 2DE and MME recordings were obtained on 22 healthy female Saanen goats (3.7 ± 1.1 years [mean ± SD], 60.2 ± 10.6 kg) awake (standing) and during isoflurane anesthesia (sternal recumbency). Cardiac dimensions and function were assessed and compared between treatments (awake vs. anaesthetized). Color Doppler imaging and saline contrast studies served to assess abnormal blood flow patterns. Post mortem examination was performed in a subset of 12 goats. Transthoracic echocardiography was feasible in all goats. Indices of LV systolic function proved to be significantly increased during general anesthesia. The membranous and occasionally echolucent appearance of the oval fossa suggested abnormal interatrial communication in 9 goats. Color Doppler imaging and saline contrast studies proved to be inaccurate to detect interatrial shunting of blood. Post mortem examination confirmed small persistent foramen ovale in only 3 out of 7 goats, in which it had been suspected on echocardiography.

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3 citations in Web of Science®
4 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2011
Deposited On:29 Dec 2011 12:35
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:15
Publisher:Hans Huber
ISSN:0036-7281
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281/a000273
PubMed ID:22139947
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-53225

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