Length scales probed by the large scale structure surveys are becoming closer and closer to the horizon scale. Further, it has been recently understood that non-Gaussianity in the initial conditions could show up in a scale dependence of the bias of galaxies at the largest possible distances. It is therefore important to take General Relativistic effects into account. Here we provide a General Relativistic generalization of the bias that is valid both for Gaussian and for non-Gaussian initial conditions. The collapse of objects happens on very small scales, while long-wavelength modes are always in the quasi linear regime. Around every small collapsing region, it is therefore possible to find a reference frame that is valid for arbitrary times and where the space time is almost flat: the Fermi frame. Here the Newtonian approximation is applicable and the equations of motion are the ones of the standard N-body codes. The effects of long-wavelength modes are encoded in the mapping from the cosmological frame to the local Fermi frame. At the level of the linear bias, the effect of the long-wavelength modes on the dynamics of the short scales is all encoded in the local curvature of the Universe, which allows us to define a General Relativistic generalization of the bias in the standard Newtonian setting. We show that the bias due to this effect goes to zero as the square of the ratio between the physical wavenumber and the Hubble scale for modes longer than the horizon, confirming the intuitive picture that modes longer than the horizon do not have any dynamical effect. On the other hand, the bias due to non-Gaussianities does not need to vanish for modes longer than the Hubble scale, and for non-Gaussianities of the local kind it goes to a constant. As a further application of our setup, we show that it is not necessary to perform large N-body simulations to extract information about long-wavelength modes: N-body simulations can be done on small scales and long-wavelength modes are encoded simply by adding curvature to the simulation, as well as rescaling the time and the scale.

Baldauf, T; Seljak, U; Senatore, L; Zaldarriaga, M (2011). *Galaxy bias and non-linear structure formation in general relativity.* Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, (10):31.

## Abstract

Length scales probed by the large scale structure surveys are becoming closer and closer to the horizon scale. Further, it has been recently understood that non-Gaussianity in the initial conditions could show up in a scale dependence of the bias of galaxies at the largest possible distances. It is therefore important to take General Relativistic effects into account. Here we provide a General Relativistic generalization of the bias that is valid both for Gaussian and for non-Gaussian initial conditions. The collapse of objects happens on very small scales, while long-wavelength modes are always in the quasi linear regime. Around every small collapsing region, it is therefore possible to find a reference frame that is valid for arbitrary times and where the space time is almost flat: the Fermi frame. Here the Newtonian approximation is applicable and the equations of motion are the ones of the standard N-body codes. The effects of long-wavelength modes are encoded in the mapping from the cosmological frame to the local Fermi frame. At the level of the linear bias, the effect of the long-wavelength modes on the dynamics of the short scales is all encoded in the local curvature of the Universe, which allows us to define a General Relativistic generalization of the bias in the standard Newtonian setting. We show that the bias due to this effect goes to zero as the square of the ratio between the physical wavenumber and the Hubble scale for modes longer than the horizon, confirming the intuitive picture that modes longer than the horizon do not have any dynamical effect. On the other hand, the bias due to non-Gaussianities does not need to vanish for modes longer than the Hubble scale, and for non-Gaussianities of the local kind it goes to a constant. As a further application of our setup, we show that it is not necessary to perform large N-body simulations to extract information about long-wavelength modes: N-body simulations can be done on small scales and long-wavelength modes are encoded simply by adding curvature to the simulation, as well as rescaling the time and the scale.

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## Additional indexing

Item Type: | Journal Article, refereed, original work |
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Communities & Collections: | 07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science |

Dewey Decimal Classification: | 530 Physics |

Language: | English |

Date: | October 2011 |

Deposited On: | 19 Feb 2012 09:14 |

Last Modified: | 05 Apr 2016 15:20 |

Publisher: | Institute of Physics Publishing |

ISSN: | 1475-7516 |

Additional Information: | This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The definitive publisher authenticated version is available online at 10.1088/1475-7516/2011/10/031 |

Publisher DOI: | https://doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2011/10/031 |

Related URLs: | http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.5507 |

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