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TLR8 activates HIV from latently infected cells of myeloid-monocytic origin directly via the MAPK pathway and from latently infected CD4+ T cells indirectly via TNF-α


Schlaepfer, E; Speck, R F (2011). TLR8 activates HIV from latently infected cells of myeloid-monocytic origin directly via the MAPK pathway and from latently infected CD4+ T cells indirectly via TNF-α. Journal of Immunology, 186(7):4314-4324.

Abstract

We previously showed that the TLR7/8 agonist, R-848, activated HIV from cells of myeloid-monocytic origin. In this work, we show that this effect was solely due to triggering TLR8 and that NF-κB was involved in the TLR8-mediated activation of HIV from latently infected cells of myeloid-monocytic origin. Inhibition of Erk1/2 or p38α resulted in attenuation of TLR8-mediated activation of NF-κB. Western blots confirmed that TLR8 triggering activated Erk1/2 and p38α but, surprisingly, not JNK. Although the Erk1/2 inhibitors resulted in a less attenuated TLR8-mediated NF-κB response than did p38α inhibitors, they had a more pronounced effect on blocking TLR8-mediated HIV replication, indicating that other transcription factors controlled by Erk1/2 are involved in TLR8-mediated HIV activation from latently infected cells. TNF-α, which was secreted subsequent to TLR8 triggering, contributed to the activation of HIV from the latently infected cells in an autocrine manner, revealing a bimodal mechanism by which the effect of TLR8 triggering can be sustained. We also found that TNF-α secreted by myeloid dendritic cells acted in a paracrine manner in the activation of HIV from neighboring latently infected CD4(+) T cells, which do not express TLR8. Notably, monocytes from highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV(+) patients with suppressed HIV RNA showed a robust TNF-α secretion in response to TLR8 agonists, pointing to a functional TLR8 signaling axis in HIV infection. Thus, triggering TLR8 represents a very promising strategy for attacking the silent HIV from its reservoir in HIV(+) patients treated successfully with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

We previously showed that the TLR7/8 agonist, R-848, activated HIV from cells of myeloid-monocytic origin. In this work, we show that this effect was solely due to triggering TLR8 and that NF-κB was involved in the TLR8-mediated activation of HIV from latently infected cells of myeloid-monocytic origin. Inhibition of Erk1/2 or p38α resulted in attenuation of TLR8-mediated activation of NF-κB. Western blots confirmed that TLR8 triggering activated Erk1/2 and p38α but, surprisingly, not JNK. Although the Erk1/2 inhibitors resulted in a less attenuated TLR8-mediated NF-κB response than did p38α inhibitors, they had a more pronounced effect on blocking TLR8-mediated HIV replication, indicating that other transcription factors controlled by Erk1/2 are involved in TLR8-mediated HIV activation from latently infected cells. TNF-α, which was secreted subsequent to TLR8 triggering, contributed to the activation of HIV from the latently infected cells in an autocrine manner, revealing a bimodal mechanism by which the effect of TLR8 triggering can be sustained. We also found that TNF-α secreted by myeloid dendritic cells acted in a paracrine manner in the activation of HIV from neighboring latently infected CD4(+) T cells, which do not express TLR8. Notably, monocytes from highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV(+) patients with suppressed HIV RNA showed a robust TNF-α secretion in response to TLR8 agonists, pointing to a functional TLR8 signaling axis in HIV infection. Thus, triggering TLR8 represents a very promising strategy for attacking the silent HIV from its reservoir in HIV(+) patients treated successfully with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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14 citations in Web of Science®
15 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2011
Deposited On:20 Jan 2012 20:09
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:24
Publisher:American Association of Immunologists
ISSN:0022-1767
Publisher DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1003174
PubMed ID:21357269

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