Permanent URL to this publication: http://dx.doi.org/10.5167/uzh-57217
Myers-Smith, I H; Forbes, B C; Wilmking, M; Hallinger, M; Lantz, T; Blok, D; Tape, K D; Macias-Fauria, M; Sass-Klaassen, U; Lévesque, E; Boudreau, S; Ropars, P; Hermanutz, L; Trant, A; Collier, L S; Weijers, S; Rozema, J; Rayback, S A; Schmidt, N M; Schaepman-Strub, G; Wipf, S; Rixen, C; Ménard, C B; Venn, S; Goetz, S; Andreu-Hayles, L; Elmendorf, S; Ravolainen, V; Welker, J; Grogan, P; Epstein, H E; Hik, D (2011). Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities. Environmental Research Letters, 6(4):045509.
Recent research using repeat photography, long-term ecological monitoring and dendrochronology has documented shrub expansion in arctic, high-latitude and alpine tundra ecosystems. Here, we (1) synthesize these findings, (2) present a conceptual framework that identifies mechanisms and constraints on shrub increase, (3) explore causes, feedbacks and implications of the increased shrub cover in tundra ecosystems, and (4) address potential lines of investigation for future research. Satellite observations from around the circumpolar Arctic, showing increased productivity, measured as changes in 'greenness', have coincided with a general rise in high-latitude air temperatures and have been partly attributed to increases in shrub cover. Studies indicate that warming temperatures, changes in snow cover, altered disturbance regimes as a result of permafrost thaw, tundra fires, and anthropogenic activities or changes in herbivory intensity are all contributing to observed changes in shrub abundance. A large-scale increase in shrub cover will change the structure of tundra ecosystems and alter energy fluxes, regional climate, soil–atmosphere exchange of water, carbon and nutrients, and ecological interactions between species. In order to project future rates of shrub expansion and understand the feedbacks to ecosystem and climate processes, future research should investigate the species or trait-specific responses of shrubs to climate change including: (1) the temperature sensitivity of shrub growth, (2) factors controlling the recruitment of new individuals, and (3) the relative influence of the positive and negative feedbacks involved in shrub expansion.
|Item Type:||Journal Article, refereed, original work|
|Communities & Collections:||07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies|
|DDC:||570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||shrubs, vegetation, tundra, Arctic, alpine, climate change, feedbacks, ecosystem structure, ecosystem function, disturbance|
|Date:||20 December 2011|
|Deposited On:||29 Feb 2012 17:44|
|Last Modified:||30 Nov 2013 03:21|
|Publisher:||Institute of Physics and IOP Publishing|
|Citations:||Web of Science®. Times Cited: 76|
Scopus®. Citation Count: 82
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