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Distinct microhemodynamic efficacy of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis in critically ischemic skin flaps


Merz, Katrin; Schweizer, Riccardo; Schlosser, Stefan; Giovanoli, Pietro; Erni, Dominique; Plock, Jan A (2012). Distinct microhemodynamic efficacy of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis in critically ischemic skin flaps. Microvascular Research, 83(2):249-256.

Abstract

Angiogenesis and arteriogenesis are regenerative vascular mechanisms dedicated to cope with critical ischemia after the interruption of the anatomical axial blood supply. The aim of the present study was to visualize, quantify and monitor the orchestration of these mechanisms and their microhemodynamic efficacy. A murine skin flap model was used that allowed for repetitive investigation of identical vascular structures by intravital microscopy. In the conduit arterioles, diameter and relative length increased to 133±20% and 260±80% over 7days, respectively (both P<0.01), which reduced vascular resistance in this segment to 82±35%. After 1week, a peak in accumulation of activated leukocytes could be observed in the postcapillary venules (P<0.01) without relevant hemodynamic changes. Thereafter, the arteriolar remodeling was replaced by angiogenesis. Functional capillary density was increased to 141±10% (P<0.01) and capillary diameter to 123±6% (P<0.01) after 14days. Both mechanisms of vascular regeneration were associated with increases in the capillary perfusion index, to 194±42% (P<0.05) after 7days and 366±21% after 14days (P>0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a correlation of arteriogenesis with eNOS upregulation and of angiogenesis with VEGF upregulation in the corresponding vessels. In conclusion, arteriogenesis was the initial regenerative mechanism leading to arteriolar remodeling, reduction in vascular resistance, and increase in capillary perfusion over the first 7days. Thereafter, capillary perfusion was improved by angiogenesis in terms of an increase in functional capillary density.

Angiogenesis and arteriogenesis are regenerative vascular mechanisms dedicated to cope with critical ischemia after the interruption of the anatomical axial blood supply. The aim of the present study was to visualize, quantify and monitor the orchestration of these mechanisms and their microhemodynamic efficacy. A murine skin flap model was used that allowed for repetitive investigation of identical vascular structures by intravital microscopy. In the conduit arterioles, diameter and relative length increased to 133±20% and 260±80% over 7days, respectively (both P<0.01), which reduced vascular resistance in this segment to 82±35%. After 1week, a peak in accumulation of activated leukocytes could be observed in the postcapillary venules (P<0.01) without relevant hemodynamic changes. Thereafter, the arteriolar remodeling was replaced by angiogenesis. Functional capillary density was increased to 141±10% (P<0.01) and capillary diameter to 123±6% (P<0.01) after 14days. Both mechanisms of vascular regeneration were associated with increases in the capillary perfusion index, to 194±42% (P<0.05) after 7days and 366±21% after 14days (P>0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a correlation of arteriogenesis with eNOS upregulation and of angiogenesis with VEGF upregulation in the corresponding vessels. In conclusion, arteriogenesis was the initial regenerative mechanism leading to arteriolar remodeling, reduction in vascular resistance, and increase in capillary perfusion over the first 7days. Thereafter, capillary perfusion was improved by angiogenesis in terms of an increase in functional capillary density.

Citations

3 citations in Web of Science®
1 citation in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Division of Surgical Research
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Reconstructive Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:03 Apr 2012 13:23
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:38
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1095-9319
Publisher DOI:10.1016/j.mvr.2011.10.005
PubMed ID:22080047

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