Landau, K; Kurz-Levin, M (2011). Retinal disorders. In: Amonoff, M J; Boller, F; Swaab, D F. Neuro-Ophthalmology, Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Edinburgh: Elsevier, 97-116.
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The retina represents part of the central nervous system (CNS). After modifying the neural signal, the axon of the last neuron enters the optic nerve and leaves the eye. In most cases of retinal disease leading to visual loss, the diagnosis will be made by an ophthalmologist after examining the ocular fundus. Some retinal disorders, however, might not be detectable at the time of examination. Those patients will be referred to a neurologist for "unexplained visual loss" when suspecting a lesion behind the optic nerve. Moreover, knowledge of potential retinal abnormalities is useful for the neurologist when seeing patients with CNS disease, which can manifest itself also in the retina. This chapter aims to give an overview about retinal disorders causing no or only few retinal abnormalities, those associated with neurological diseases, as well as the most important retinal diseases involving the tissues of the ocular fundus (vitreous body, retina, pigment epithelium, and the choroid). The most frequently used examination techniques and diagnostic tools are described. Tumors, vascular disease, especially diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, chorioretinal inflammatory and toxic disorders, paraneoplastic retinopathies, inherited retinal dystrophies, and retinal involvement in CNS disease such as phakomatoses and multiple sclerosis are discussed.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Item Type:||Book Section, refereed, further contribution|
|Communities & Collections:||04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Ophthalmology Clinic|
|Dewey Decimal Classification:||610 Medicine & health|
|Deposited On:||06 Mar 2012 15:43|
|Last Modified:||04 Apr 2012 14:26|
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