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Negative regulation of Raf activity by binding of 14-3-3 to the amino terminus of Raf in vivo.


Rommel, C; Radziwill, G; Moelling, K; Hafen, E (1997). Negative regulation of Raf activity by binding of 14-3-3 to the amino terminus of Raf in vivo. Mechanisms of Development, 64(1-2):95-104.

Abstract

In the developing eye of Drosophila the protein kinase D-Raf controls the specification of the R7 photoreceptor cells. We show that overexpression of wild-type D-Raf inhibits the formation of R7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, overexpression of mutant D-Raf proteins in which the conserved S388 is replaced by A or by D promotes the formation of supernumerary R7 cells, indicating increased D-Raf activity in vivo. S388 in D-Raf corresponds to S259 in c-Raf; shown to be involved in binding of 14-3-3. We show that analogous substitutions of S259 in c-Raf prevent binding of 14-3-3 zeta to the amino terminus of c-Raf and cause a Ras-independent constitutively increased c-Raf kinase activity. Binding of 14-3-3 zeta to the second binding site at the carboxy terminal catalytic domain was unaffected by these mutations. These results suggest that the increased kinase activity of mutant D-Raf is caused by the selective loss of 14-3-3 binding to its amino terminus. Therefore, binding of 14-3-3 to the amino terminus of Raf appears to negatively regulate Raf kinase activity in vivo.

In the developing eye of Drosophila the protein kinase D-Raf controls the specification of the R7 photoreceptor cells. We show that overexpression of wild-type D-Raf inhibits the formation of R7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, overexpression of mutant D-Raf proteins in which the conserved S388 is replaced by A or by D promotes the formation of supernumerary R7 cells, indicating increased D-Raf activity in vivo. S388 in D-Raf corresponds to S259 in c-Raf; shown to be involved in binding of 14-3-3. We show that analogous substitutions of S259 in c-Raf prevent binding of 14-3-3 zeta to the amino terminus of c-Raf and cause a Ras-independent constitutively increased c-Raf kinase activity. Binding of 14-3-3 zeta to the second binding site at the carboxy terminal catalytic domain was unaffected by these mutations. These results suggest that the increased kinase activity of mutant D-Raf is caused by the selective loss of 14-3-3 binding to its amino terminus. Therefore, binding of 14-3-3 to the amino terminus of Raf appears to negatively regulate Raf kinase activity in vivo.

Citations

39 citations in Web of Science®
36 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Zoology (former)
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Language:English
Date:1 June 1997
Deposited On:11 Feb 2008 12:16
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:15
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0925-4773
Publisher DOI:10.1016/S0925-4773(97)00052-X
PubMed ID:9232600

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