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Americardia lightbourni new species and A. columbella new species compared to A. media (Linnaeus, 1758), A. speciosa (A. Adams and Reeve, 1850), and the extinct A. columba (Heilprin, 1886) (Bivalvia: Cardiidae)


Lee, Harry G; Huber, Markus (2012). Americardia lightbourni new species and A. columbella new species compared to A. media (Linnaeus, 1758), A. speciosa (A. Adams and Reeve, 1850), and the extinct A. columba (Heilprin, 1886) (Bivalvia: Cardiidae). Nautilus (Sanibel), 126(1):15-24.

Abstract

A comparatively small and many ribbed Americardia living from Bermuda, off Florida to Caribbean Panama and Brazil is described and named after J.R.H. (Jack) Lightbourn. The new species has more anterior ribs and reaches a significantly smaller size than the two other Recent western Atlantic species. It also lives in deeper water, particularly in the northern part of its distribution. It is well represented in Bermuda and Brazil but has been confounded with the much larger, lower ribbed and shallow water Americardia media, best known from the West Indies. A comparison of the Pliocene Americardia columba (Heilprin, 1886) with Recent material revealed gross similarities, yet its marked distinct rib sculpture did not allow consideration of the latter material conspecific. Thus Americardia columbella, living from North Carolina to Yucatan, Mexico, is also described as new herein. These two new species are compared with the type species, A. media, living from Florida to Ascension, and its congener A. speciosa, living exclusively at St. Helena. Instead of one, in Florida there are three and inBrazil two, extant Americardia. There is only one species living in the waters of Bermuda, North Carolina, Ascension, and St. Helena, but each of these populations represents a distinct Americardia species. Based on the most recent studies, the application of Americardia is genetically, biogeographically, and morphologically supported for this Atlantic and Eastern Pacific species complex. Consequently, Ctenocardia is restricted to the superficially similar but spiny Indo-Pacific species-group. According to Linnaeus, 1758 and 1767, his “O[ceano] Indico” type of Cardium medium should be at Uppsala only. However, no type material or trace thereof could be found there. In reality, the true identity of the Linnaean species is simply unknown and conspecificity with the Indo-Pacific Ctenocardia fornicata could not be excluded. To stabilize one of the “best known” Caribbean cardiids a neotype from material in the Linnean Society, London is selected, and McLean’s supposed type locality, Cuba, Havana is herein confirmed. The Natural History Museum, London [NHMUK] type material of Cardium speciosum is comprised of four specimens, which, however, represent two species. Only one matches the original description and is confirmed as the holotype. The other three specimens were added after 1890.

A comparatively small and many ribbed Americardia living from Bermuda, off Florida to Caribbean Panama and Brazil is described and named after J.R.H. (Jack) Lightbourn. The new species has more anterior ribs and reaches a significantly smaller size than the two other Recent western Atlantic species. It also lives in deeper water, particularly in the northern part of its distribution. It is well represented in Bermuda and Brazil but has been confounded with the much larger, lower ribbed and shallow water Americardia media, best known from the West Indies. A comparison of the Pliocene Americardia columba (Heilprin, 1886) with Recent material revealed gross similarities, yet its marked distinct rib sculpture did not allow consideration of the latter material conspecific. Thus Americardia columbella, living from North Carolina to Yucatan, Mexico, is also described as new herein. These two new species are compared with the type species, A. media, living from Florida to Ascension, and its congener A. speciosa, living exclusively at St. Helena. Instead of one, in Florida there are three and inBrazil two, extant Americardia. There is only one species living in the waters of Bermuda, North Carolina, Ascension, and St. Helena, but each of these populations represents a distinct Americardia species. Based on the most recent studies, the application of Americardia is genetically, biogeographically, and morphologically supported for this Atlantic and Eastern Pacific species complex. Consequently, Ctenocardia is restricted to the superficially similar but spiny Indo-Pacific species-group. According to Linnaeus, 1758 and 1767, his “O[ceano] Indico” type of Cardium medium should be at Uppsala only. However, no type material or trace thereof could be found there. In reality, the true identity of the Linnaean species is simply unknown and conspecificity with the Indo-Pacific Ctenocardia fornicata could not be excluded. To stabilize one of the “best known” Caribbean cardiids a neotype from material in the Linnean Society, London is selected, and McLean’s supposed type locality, Cuba, Havana is herein confirmed. The Natural History Museum, London [NHMUK] type material of Cardium speciosum is comprised of four specimens, which, however, represent two species. Only one matches the original description and is confirmed as the holotype. The other three specimens were added after 1890.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:03 Apr 2012 13:18
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:46
Publisher:Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum
ISSN:0028-1344
Related URLs:http://shellmuseum.org/nautilus/nautilus_contents_126.html
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-61659

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