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Berger-Bächi, Brigitte (2002). Resistance mechanisms of gram-positive bacteria. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 292(1):27-35.

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The introduction and increasing use of antibiotics for antibacterial therapy has initiated a rapid development and expansion of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms, particularly in human pathogens. Additionally, a shift to an increase in number and severity of Gram-positive infections has been observed the last decades. Common to these pathogens is their tendency to accumulate multiple resistances under antibiotic pressure and selection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), that have acquired multiresistance to all classes of antibiotics, have become a serious nosocomial problem. Recently, the emergence of the first MRSA with reduced vancomycin susceptibility evoked the specter of a totally resistant S. aureus. Problems with multiresistance expand also to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae that are partially or totally resistant to multiple antibiotics, and to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ssp., completely resistant to all commonly used antibiotics. The rapid development of resistance is due to mutational events and/or gene transfer and acquisition of resistance determinants, allowing strains to survive antibiotic treatment.


30 citations in Web of Science®
44 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Microbiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Deposited On:20 Jul 2012 21:10
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:47
Publisher DOI:10.1078/1438-4221-00185
PubMed ID:12139425

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