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Effect of an antiretroviral regimen containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir on intestinal and hepatic CYP3A, CYP2D6 and P-glycoprotein in HIV-infected patients


Wyen, C; Fuhr, U; Frank, D; Aarnoutse, R E; Klaassen, T; Lazar, A; Seeringer, A; Doroshyenko, O; Kirchheiner, J C; Abdulrazik, F; Schmeisser, N; Lehmann, C; Hein, W; Schömig, E; Burger, D M; Fätkenheuer, G; Jetter, A (2008). Effect of an antiretroviral regimen containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir on intestinal and hepatic CYP3A, CYP2D6 and P-glycoprotein in HIV-infected patients. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 84(1):75-82.

Abstract

This study aimed to quantify the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A), CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving an antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir, and to identify factors influencing ritonavir and lopinavir pharmacokinetics. We measured activities of CYP3A, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein in 28 patients before and during ART using a cocktail phenotyping approach. Activities, demographics, and genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein were tested as covariates. Oral midazolam clearance (overall CYP3A activity) decreased to 0.19-fold (90% confidence interval (CI), 0.15-0.23), hepatic midazolam clearance and intestinal midazolam availability changed to 0.24-fold (0.20-0.29) and 1.12-fold (1.00-1.26), respectively. In CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers, the plasma ratio AUC(dextromethorphan)/AUC(dextrorphan) increased to 2.92-fold (2.31-3.69). Digoxin area under the curve (AUC)(0-12) (P-glycoprotein activity) increased to 1.81-fold (1.56-2.09). Covariates had no major influence on lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, CYP3A, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein are profoundly inhibited in patients receiving ritonavir boosted lopinavir. The covariates investigated are not useful for a priori dose selection.

Abstract

This study aimed to quantify the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A), CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving an antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir, and to identify factors influencing ritonavir and lopinavir pharmacokinetics. We measured activities of CYP3A, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein in 28 patients before and during ART using a cocktail phenotyping approach. Activities, demographics, and genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein were tested as covariates. Oral midazolam clearance (overall CYP3A activity) decreased to 0.19-fold (90% confidence interval (CI), 0.15-0.23), hepatic midazolam clearance and intestinal midazolam availability changed to 0.24-fold (0.20-0.29) and 1.12-fold (1.00-1.26), respectively. In CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers, the plasma ratio AUC(dextromethorphan)/AUC(dextrorphan) increased to 2.92-fold (2.31-3.69). Digoxin area under the curve (AUC)(0-12) (P-glycoprotein activity) increased to 1.81-fold (1.56-2.09). Covariates had no major influence on lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, CYP3A, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein are profoundly inhibited in patients receiving ritonavir boosted lopinavir. The covariates investigated are not useful for a priori dose selection.

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44 citations in Web of Science®
48 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2008
Deposited On:01 Dec 2008 11:22
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:36
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0009-9236
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.clpt.6100452
PubMed ID:18183034

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