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Proyer, Rene T (2012). Development and initial assessment of a short measure for adult playfulness: The SMAP. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(8):989-994.

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This study reports an initial evaluation of a new short measure for adult playfulness (SMAP). In data from
a construction (N = 266), and two replication samples (N = 147 students, N = 215 adults), a one-dimensional
solution showed the best fit for the data and satisfactory internal consistency (.80–.89) was found
(test–retest correlation = .74; 12–16 weeks). Younger adults scored higher in playfulness than older ones.
The SMAP demonstrated robust correlations with measures for adult playfulness and the need for play.
Cheerfulness and culture along with low seriousness and low conscientiousness were its best predictors.
In ratings of an unordered work-space and a surrealistic painting, playful adults expressed higher liking
for and lower disapproval of these compared to non-playful adults. Overall, the new scale yielded good
psychometric properties and first evidence on its validity was encouraging. The SMAP has been developed
for an economic, global assessment of adult playfulness, which is still an understudied topic in personality


8 citations in Web of Science®
5 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™


Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Adult playfulness , Cheerfulness , Humor , Play , Playfulness , Seriousness
Deposited On:04 Sep 2012 13:08
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:57
Publisher DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2012.07.018

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