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Exotic mosquitoes conquer the world


Becker, Norbert; Pluskota, Björn; Kaiser, Achim; Schaffner, Francis (2012). Exotic mosquitoes conquer the world. In: Mehlhorn, Heinz. Arthropods as Vectors of Emerging Diseases. Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer, 31-60.

Abstract

Mosquitoes have inhabited the globe for more than 100 million years, long before Homo sapiens occurred on Earth. In the course of evolution, they were able to adjust their biology to a great variety of ecological conditions and reproduce in almost all aquatic habitats. Without the support of Homo sapiens, mosquitoes disperse passively by wind drift (up to ∼25 km) or by active flight usually limited to <50 km per migration process. However, present-day human activities enable mosquitoes to be transported from one continent to another within a matter of hours to a few days. Increased transcontinental mobility of humans as well as the international trade, facilitate the dispersal and in some cases, the establishment of exotic mosquito species in other countries with favorable climatic conditions. The most remarkable ability of these species is that the eggs can survive desiccation and dryness for months or sometimes even years and can thus survive long periods with unfavorable living conditions. This ensures that e.g. eggs can survive in used tires or other small containers when these are shipped and consequently increase the probability of successful transport. In general, these species possess a high ecological potency and can rapidly adapt to new habitats due to their genetic plasticity. Within the about 30 species known to have established in new areas throughout the world, 3 species merit special recognition for their dispersal potential and also for their significance as vectors of human diseases: Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus 1762), Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1895) and Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicus (Theobald 1901). In this chapter the taxonomy, biology, distribution and medical importance of the most successful invasive species are discussed, namely Aedes aegypti, Aedes. albopictus, Ochlerotatus japonicus, Ochlerotatus koreicus, Ochlerotatus atropalpus and Ochlerotatus triseriatus.

Mosquitoes have inhabited the globe for more than 100 million years, long before Homo sapiens occurred on Earth. In the course of evolution, they were able to adjust their biology to a great variety of ecological conditions and reproduce in almost all aquatic habitats. Without the support of Homo sapiens, mosquitoes disperse passively by wind drift (up to ∼25 km) or by active flight usually limited to <50 km per migration process. However, present-day human activities enable mosquitoes to be transported from one continent to another within a matter of hours to a few days. Increased transcontinental mobility of humans as well as the international trade, facilitate the dispersal and in some cases, the establishment of exotic mosquito species in other countries with favorable climatic conditions. The most remarkable ability of these species is that the eggs can survive desiccation and dryness for months or sometimes even years and can thus survive long periods with unfavorable living conditions. This ensures that e.g. eggs can survive in used tires or other small containers when these are shipped and consequently increase the probability of successful transport. In general, these species possess a high ecological potency and can rapidly adapt to new habitats due to their genetic plasticity. Within the about 30 species known to have established in new areas throughout the world, 3 species merit special recognition for their dispersal potential and also for their significance as vectors of human diseases: Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus 1762), Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1895) and Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicus (Theobald 1901). In this chapter the taxonomy, biology, distribution and medical importance of the most successful invasive species are discussed, namely Aedes aegypti, Aedes. albopictus, Ochlerotatus japonicus, Ochlerotatus koreicus, Ochlerotatus atropalpus and Ochlerotatus triseriatus.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Book Section, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Language:English
Date:6 July 2012
Deposited On:01 Oct 2012 11:51
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:58
Publisher:Springer
Series Name:Parasitology Research Monographs
Number:3
ISBN:978-3-642-28842-5
Publisher DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-28842-5_2
Related URLs:http://biblio.unizh.ch/F/?local_base=UZH01&con_lng=GER&func=find-b&find_code=SYS&request=002071137
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-64806

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