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Permanent URL to this publication: http://dx.doi.org/10.5167/uzh-64855

Stephan, K E; Roebroeck, A (2012). A short history of causal modeling of fMRI data. NeuroImage, 62(2):856-863.

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Twenty years ago, the discovery of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast and invention of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) not only allowed for enhanced analyses of regional brain activity, but also laid the foundation for novel approaches to studying effective connectivity, which is essential for mechanistically interpretable accounts of neuronal systems. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and Granger causality (G-causality) modeling have since become the most frequently used techniques for inferring effective connectivity from fMRI data. In this paper, we provide a short historical overview of these approaches, describing milestones of their development from our subjective perspectives.


34 citations in Web of Science®
41 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Biomedical Engineering
Dewey Decimal Classification:170 Ethics
610 Medicine & health
Deposited On:26 Sep 2012 14:43
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:58
Publisher DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.034
PubMed ID:22248576

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