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Effect of the G-308A polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene promoter site on plasma levels of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein in smokers: a cross-sectional study.


Gander, M L; Fischer, J E; Maly, F E; von Känel, R (2004). Effect of the G-308A polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene promoter site on plasma levels of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein in smokers: a cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 4:17.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and of C-reactive protein (CRP) are elevated in smokers. Previous studies failed to show an association between the G-308A polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNF-alpha gene and coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated whether smoking would interact with the TNF-alpha G-308A polymorphism in determining plasma levels of TNF-alpha and CRP. METHODS: Study participants with a complete data set in terms of smoking and the TNF-alpha G-308A polymorphism were 300 middle-aged male and female industrial employees. After excluding 24 irregular smokers, analyses were performed on 198 "non-smokers" (life-long non-smokers or subjects who quit smoking >6 months ago) as compared to 78 "regular smokers" (subjects currently smoking >3 cigarettes/day). All subjects had a fasting morning blood draw to measure plasma levels of TNF-alpha and CRP by high-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The cardiovascular risk factor adjusted analysis regressing log-transformed CRP levels against smoking status, genotype, and smoking-status-genotype interaction revealed a significant main effect for smoking status (F1,250 = 5.67, p = .018) but not for genotype (F1,250 = 0.33, p = .57). The interaction-term between genotype and smoking status was not significant (F1,250 = 0.09, p = .76). The fully adjusted model with plasma TNF-alpha failed to show significant main effects for smoking and genotype, as well as for the smoking-status-genotype interaction. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the TNF-alpha G-308A polymorphism does not mediate the effect of smoking on plasma CRP levels. It remains to be seen whether other genetic polymorphisms along the inflammatory pathway may modulate vascular risk in smokers.

BACKGROUND: Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and of C-reactive protein (CRP) are elevated in smokers. Previous studies failed to show an association between the G-308A polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNF-alpha gene and coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated whether smoking would interact with the TNF-alpha G-308A polymorphism in determining plasma levels of TNF-alpha and CRP. METHODS: Study participants with a complete data set in terms of smoking and the TNF-alpha G-308A polymorphism were 300 middle-aged male and female industrial employees. After excluding 24 irregular smokers, analyses were performed on 198 "non-smokers" (life-long non-smokers or subjects who quit smoking >6 months ago) as compared to 78 "regular smokers" (subjects currently smoking >3 cigarettes/day). All subjects had a fasting morning blood draw to measure plasma levels of TNF-alpha and CRP by high-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The cardiovascular risk factor adjusted analysis regressing log-transformed CRP levels against smoking status, genotype, and smoking-status-genotype interaction revealed a significant main effect for smoking status (F1,250 = 5.67, p = .018) but not for genotype (F1,250 = 0.33, p = .57). The interaction-term between genotype and smoking status was not significant (F1,250 = 0.09, p = .76). The fully adjusted model with plasma TNF-alpha failed to show significant main effects for smoking and genotype, as well as for the smoking-status-genotype interaction. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the TNF-alpha G-308A polymorphism does not mediate the effect of smoking on plasma CRP levels. It remains to be seen whether other genetic polymorphisms along the inflammatory pathway may modulate vascular risk in smokers.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2004
Deposited On:11 Feb 2008 12:12
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:12
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-2261
Publisher DOI:10.1186/1471-2261-4-17
PubMed ID:15485576
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-65

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