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Permanent URL to this publication: http://dx.doi.org/10.5167/uzh-6504

Steinhausen, H C; Gundelfinger, R; Winkler Metzke, C (2009). Prevalence of self-reported seasonal affective disorders and the validity of the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire in young adults Findings from a Swiss community study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 115(3):347-354.

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BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to expand the knowledge on the prevalence of self-reported Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and to further study the validity of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). METHODS: A total of N=844 young adults were assessed in a Swiss community study by use of the SPAQ, a Seasonal Affective Disorders Questionnaire (SADQ), the Young Adult Self Report (YASR), the Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale (CES-D), and scales for measuring self-esteem, self-awareness and life events. At a second stage, a total of N=534 screen positives and controls were subjected to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) for the assessment of mental disorders. According to the SPAQ classification a group of SAD subjects and a group of subsyndromal SAD subjects (S-SAD) were defined. In addition, a third group of high-scoring depressives (HSD) subjects scoring above the 75th percentile of the CES-D was defined. Comparisons included these three groups and the rest of the sample serving as controls. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence for SAD in this sample was 7.84% based on the SPAQ alone. With the addition of the SADQ, weighted prevalence rates dropped to 2.22%. Weighted subsyndromal SAD was 33.04%. Across the vast majority of scales, the SAD group was indistinguishable from the HSD group. These two groups scored highest, whereas the S-SAD group had an intermediate position and the controls had the lowest scores. SAD was best predicted by the CES-D total score. CONCLUSIONS: The SPAQ as a single measure leads to an overestimation of SAD which, nevertheless, is a rather common phenomenon also in this central European population. The findings on the validity of the SPAQ are extended by showing that predominantly general aspects of depression are measured.


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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Date:June 2009
Deposited On:09 Jan 2009 09:22
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:37
Additional Information:Elsevier – Full text article
Publisher DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2008.09.016
PubMed ID:18947880

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