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Critical features for biosynthesis, stability, and functionality of a G protein-coupled receptor uncovered by all-versus-all mutations


Schlinkmann, K M; Honegger, A; Tureci, E; Robison, K E; Lipovsek, D; Pluckthun, A (2012). Critical features for biosynthesis, stability, and functionality of a G protein-coupled receptor uncovered by all-versus-all mutations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 109(25):9810-9815.

Abstract

The structural features determining efficient biosynthesis, stability in the membrane and, after solubilization, in detergents are not well understood for integral membrane proteins such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Starting from the rat neurotensin receptor 1, a class A GPCR, we generated a separate library comprising all 64 codons for each amino acid position. By combining a previously developed FACS-based selection system for functional expression [Sarkar C, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:14808-14813] with ultradeep 454 sequencing, we determined the amino acid preference in every position and identified several positions in the natural sequence that restrict functional expression. A strong accumulation of shifts, i.e., a residue preference different from wild type, is detected for helix 1, suggesting a key role in receptor biosynthesis. Furthermore, under selective pressure we observe a shift of the most conserved residues of the N-terminal helices. This unique data set allows us to compare the in vitro evolution of a GPCR to the natural evolution of the GPCR family and to observe how selective pressure shapes the sequence space covered by functional molecules. Under the applied selective pressure, several positions shift away from the wild-type sequence, and these improve the biophysical properties. We discuss possible structural reasons for conserved and shifted residues.

Abstract

The structural features determining efficient biosynthesis, stability in the membrane and, after solubilization, in detergents are not well understood for integral membrane proteins such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Starting from the rat neurotensin receptor 1, a class A GPCR, we generated a separate library comprising all 64 codons for each amino acid position. By combining a previously developed FACS-based selection system for functional expression [Sarkar C, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:14808-14813] with ultradeep 454 sequencing, we determined the amino acid preference in every position and identified several positions in the natural sequence that restrict functional expression. A strong accumulation of shifts, i.e., a residue preference different from wild type, is detected for helix 1, suggesting a key role in receptor biosynthesis. Furthermore, under selective pressure we observe a shift of the most conserved residues of the N-terminal helices. This unique data set allows us to compare the in vitro evolution of a GPCR to the natural evolution of the GPCR family and to observe how selective pressure shapes the sequence space covered by functional molecules. Under the applied selective pressure, several positions shift away from the wild-type sequence, and these improve the biophysical properties. We discuss possible structural reasons for conserved and shifted residues.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Biochemistry
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Biochemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:11 Oct 2012 09:18
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:59
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN:0027-8424
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1202107109
PubMed ID:22665811

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