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Pectus excavatum: echocardiography and cardiac MRI reveal frequent pericardial effusion and right-sided heart anomalies


Oezcan, S; Attenhofer Jost, C H; Pfyffer, M; Kellenberger, C; Jenni, R; Binggeli, C; Faeh-Gunz, A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Scharf, C; Kretschmar, O; Valsangiacomo Büchel, Emanuela R (2012). Pectus excavatum: echocardiography and cardiac MRI reveal frequent pericardial effusion and right-sided heart anomalies. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, 13(8):673-679.

Abstract

AIMS: In patients with pectus excavatum (PEX), echocardiographic assessment can be difficult. There are little data on the impact of the chest deformity on echocardiographic findings and comparison of data obtained by echocardiography (echo) with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in PEX.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective study, cardiac anomalies in PEX were analysed by echo and compared with CMR in consecutive patients with PEX referred for echo. If they agreed to participate, the patients were referred for CMR and included if the pectus index was ≥3.0 by CMR. Also, clinical data and electrocardiogram tracings were analysed. There were 18 patients (13 females; 72%), with a mean age of 53±16 years; mean pectus index was 4.7 (range: 3-7.3). Echo showed haemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusion in six patients (33%), tricuspid valve prolapse in five (28%), right ventricular (RV) localized wall motion anomalies (WMA) in five (28%) and diminished RV systolic function in two (11%); no patient had RV dilatation. CMR demonstrated cardiac displacement to the left in 9 patients (50%); minimal pericardial effusion was seen in 10 patients (56%; P value=0.13 compared with echo), RV localized WMA in 6 (44%; P value=1.0), diminished RV systolic function in 8 (44%; P=0.07), and RV dilatation in 5 (28%; P=0.06). A completely normal cardiac examination was found in six patients by echo (33%) and in 2 (11%) using CMR. Although some signs of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (ARVC) were present, no patient fulfilled the ARVC criteria.
CONCLUSION: In severe PEX, haemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusion, tricuspid valve prolapse and other RV anomalies possibly due to RV displacement are frequent as demonstrated by both CMR and echo. The cardiac assessment by echo and CMR did show discrepancies; however, they were not significant.

AIMS: In patients with pectus excavatum (PEX), echocardiographic assessment can be difficult. There are little data on the impact of the chest deformity on echocardiographic findings and comparison of data obtained by echocardiography (echo) with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in PEX.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective study, cardiac anomalies in PEX were analysed by echo and compared with CMR in consecutive patients with PEX referred for echo. If they agreed to participate, the patients were referred for CMR and included if the pectus index was ≥3.0 by CMR. Also, clinical data and electrocardiogram tracings were analysed. There were 18 patients (13 females; 72%), with a mean age of 53±16 years; mean pectus index was 4.7 (range: 3-7.3). Echo showed haemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusion in six patients (33%), tricuspid valve prolapse in five (28%), right ventricular (RV) localized wall motion anomalies (WMA) in five (28%) and diminished RV systolic function in two (11%); no patient had RV dilatation. CMR demonstrated cardiac displacement to the left in 9 patients (50%); minimal pericardial effusion was seen in 10 patients (56%; P value=0.13 compared with echo), RV localized WMA in 6 (44%; P value=1.0), diminished RV systolic function in 8 (44%; P=0.07), and RV dilatation in 5 (28%; P=0.06). A completely normal cardiac examination was found in six patients by echo (33%) and in 2 (11%) using CMR. Although some signs of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (ARVC) were present, no patient fulfilled the ARVC criteria.
CONCLUSION: In severe PEX, haemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusion, tricuspid valve prolapse and other RV anomalies possibly due to RV displacement are frequent as demonstrated by both CMR and echo. The cardiac assessment by echo and CMR did show discrepancies; however, they were not significant.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:17 Oct 2012 12:32
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:00
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:2047-2404
Publisher DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jer284
PubMed ID:22298154
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-65460

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