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Contrast harmonic imaging characterization of canine splenic lesions


Ohlerth, Stefanie; Dennler, Mathias; Rüefli, E; Hauser, Beat; Poirier, V; Siebeck, N; Roos, Malgorzata; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara (2008). Contrast harmonic imaging characterization of canine splenic lesions. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 22(5):1095-1102.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although B-mode ultrasound is very sensitive for the detection of splenic lesions, its specificity is low. Contrast harmonic imaging is used successfully to differentiate benign from malignant liver lesions in humans and dogs. HYPOTHESIS: Contrast harmonic imaging could be useful to differentiate benign and malignant splenic lesions in dogs. ANIMALS: Sixty dogs (clinical patients) with splenic abnormalities detected during abdominal ultrasonography. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with a Philips ATL 5000 unit for contrast pulse inversion harmonic imaging (mechanical index: 0.08, contrast medium: SonoVue). Perfusion was assessed subjectively and quantitatively. RESULTS: Cytology or histology identified 27 benign (hyperplasia, extramedullary hematopoiesis, hematoma) and 29 malignant (hemangiosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, malignant histiocytosis, mesenchymal tumors without classification, mast cell tumors, and others) lesions and 4 normal spleens. Except for 1 benign nodule, extensive to moderate hypoechogenicity was only seen in malignant lesions during wash-in, at peak enhancement, and during wash-out (P= .0001, odds ratios: 37.9 [95% CI 4.5-316.5], 66.4 [95% CI 8.0-551.1], and 36.9 [95% CI 4.4-308.4]). Although all but 1 benign lesion enhanced well and were mildly hypo-, iso-, or hyperechoic in comparison with the normal spleen during all blood pool phases, marked enhancement occurred both in benign as well as in malignant splenic lesions. Quantitative perfusion values did not differ significantly between benign and malignant lesions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Moderate to extensive hypoechogenicity clearly identifies canine splenic malignant lesions. In nodules with marked enhancement, contrast harmonic ultrasound is of limited value and histology is needed.

BACKGROUND: Although B-mode ultrasound is very sensitive for the detection of splenic lesions, its specificity is low. Contrast harmonic imaging is used successfully to differentiate benign from malignant liver lesions in humans and dogs. HYPOTHESIS: Contrast harmonic imaging could be useful to differentiate benign and malignant splenic lesions in dogs. ANIMALS: Sixty dogs (clinical patients) with splenic abnormalities detected during abdominal ultrasonography. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with a Philips ATL 5000 unit for contrast pulse inversion harmonic imaging (mechanical index: 0.08, contrast medium: SonoVue). Perfusion was assessed subjectively and quantitatively. RESULTS: Cytology or histology identified 27 benign (hyperplasia, extramedullary hematopoiesis, hematoma) and 29 malignant (hemangiosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, malignant histiocytosis, mesenchymal tumors without classification, mast cell tumors, and others) lesions and 4 normal spleens. Except for 1 benign nodule, extensive to moderate hypoechogenicity was only seen in malignant lesions during wash-in, at peak enhancement, and during wash-out (P= .0001, odds ratios: 37.9 [95% CI 4.5-316.5], 66.4 [95% CI 8.0-551.1], and 36.9 [95% CI 4.4-308.4]). Although all but 1 benign lesion enhanced well and were mildly hypo-, iso-, or hyperechoic in comparison with the normal spleen during all blood pool phases, marked enhancement occurred both in benign as well as in malignant splenic lesions. Quantitative perfusion values did not differ significantly between benign and malignant lesions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Moderate to extensive hypoechogenicity clearly identifies canine splenic malignant lesions. In nodules with marked enhancement, contrast harmonic ultrasound is of limited value and histology is needed.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:4 August 2008
Deposited On:10 Dec 2008 13:47
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:38
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0891-6640
Publisher DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0154.x
PubMed ID:18681923
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-6720

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