In October 2005, the second Swiss national avian influenza monitoring in wild waterfowl and commercial poultry
with free range management started. Cloacal swabs were examined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for bothMgene of influenza A virus and H5 subtype. The monitoring (more than 2000 samples tested) documented the introduction of H5N1 in Swiss wild waterfowl in mid-February 2006. Until the end of March, 29 water bird carcasses were found H5 positive. In the same period, domestic poultry flocks with a permit of free-range management were kept under surveillance, with negative results.