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Insula-specific 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy reactions in heavy smokers under acute nicotine withdrawal and after oral nicotine substitution


Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M; Hergan, Klaus; Graf, Nicole; Binkert, Christoph A; Meier, Dieter; Brügger, Mike; Reischauer, Carolin; Sutter, Reto; Herdener, Marcus; Schubert, Tillmann; Kos, Sebastian; Grosshans, Martin; Straka, Matus; Mutschler, Jochen (2013). Insula-specific 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy reactions in heavy smokers under acute nicotine withdrawal and after oral nicotine substitution. European Addiction Research, 19(4):184-193.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to clarify whether addiction-specific neurometabolic reaction patterns occur in the insular cortex during acute nicotine withdrawal in tobacco smokers in comparison to nonsmokers. Fourteen male smokers and 10 male nonsmokers were included. Neurometabolites of the right and the left insular cortices were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) on a 3-Tesla scanner. Three separate MRS measurements were performed in each subject: among the smokers, the first measurement was done during normal smoking behavior, the second measurement during acute withdrawal (after 24 h of smoking abstinence), and the third shortly after administration of an oral nicotine substitute. Simultaneously, craving, withdrawal symptoms, and CO levels in exhaled air were determined during the three phases. The participants in the control group underwent the same MR protocol. In the smokers, during withdrawal, the insular cortex showed a significant increase in glutamine (Gln; p = 0.023) as well as a slight increase not reaching significance for glutamine/glutamate (Glx; p = 0.085) and a nonsignificant drop in myoinositol (mI; p = 0.381). These values tended to normalize after oral nicotine substitution treatment, even though differences were not significant: Gln (p = 0.225), Glx (p = 0.107) and mI (p = 0.810). Overall, the nonsmokers (control group) did not show any metabolic changes over all three phases (p > 0.05). In smokers, acute nicotine withdrawal produces a neurometabolic reaction pattern that is partly reversed by the administration of an oral nicotine substitute. The results are consistent with the expression of an addiction-specific neurometabolic shift in the brain and confirm the fact that the insular cortex seems to play a possible role in nicotine dependence.

The aim of this study was to clarify whether addiction-specific neurometabolic reaction patterns occur in the insular cortex during acute nicotine withdrawal in tobacco smokers in comparison to nonsmokers. Fourteen male smokers and 10 male nonsmokers were included. Neurometabolites of the right and the left insular cortices were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) on a 3-Tesla scanner. Three separate MRS measurements were performed in each subject: among the smokers, the first measurement was done during normal smoking behavior, the second measurement during acute withdrawal (after 24 h of smoking abstinence), and the third shortly after administration of an oral nicotine substitute. Simultaneously, craving, withdrawal symptoms, and CO levels in exhaled air were determined during the three phases. The participants in the control group underwent the same MR protocol. In the smokers, during withdrawal, the insular cortex showed a significant increase in glutamine (Gln; p = 0.023) as well as a slight increase not reaching significance for glutamine/glutamate (Glx; p = 0.085) and a nonsignificant drop in myoinositol (mI; p = 0.381). These values tended to normalize after oral nicotine substitution treatment, even though differences were not significant: Gln (p = 0.225), Glx (p = 0.107) and mI (p = 0.810). Overall, the nonsmokers (control group) did not show any metabolic changes over all three phases (p > 0.05). In smokers, acute nicotine withdrawal produces a neurometabolic reaction pattern that is partly reversed by the administration of an oral nicotine substitute. The results are consistent with the expression of an addiction-specific neurometabolic shift in the brain and confirm the fact that the insular cortex seems to play a possible role in nicotine dependence.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Clinical and Social Psychiatry Zurich West (former)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Masticatory Disorders and Complete Dentures, Geriatric and Special Care Dentistry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Biomedical Engineering
Dewey Decimal Classification:170 Ethics
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:29 Jan 2013 08:22
Last Modified:17 Jun 2016 07:38
Publisher:Karger
ISSN:1022-6877
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1159/000345915
PubMed ID:23257512
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-71779

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