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Self-stigma of mental illness scale - short form: Reliability and validity


Corrigan, Patrick W; Michaels, Patrick J; Vega, Eduardo; Gause, Michael; Watson, Amy C; Rüsch, Nicolas (2012). Self-stigma of mental illness scale - short form: Reliability and validity. Psychiatry Research, 199(1):65-69.

Abstract

The internalization of public stigma by persons with serious mental illnesses may lead to self-stigma, which harms self-esteem, self-efficacy, and empowerment. Previous research has evaluated a hierarchical model that distinguishes among stereotype awareness, agreement, application to self, and harm to self with the 40-item Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (SSMIS). This study addressed SSMIS critiques (too long, contains offensive items that discourages test completion) by strategically omitting half of the original scale's items. Here we report reliability and validity of the 20-item short form (SSMIS-SF) based on data from three previous studies. Retained items were rated less offensive by a sample of consumers. Results indicated adequate internal consistencies for each subscale. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed subscale means progressively diminished from awareness to harm. In support of its validity, the harm subscale was found to be inversely and significantly related to self-esteem, self-efficacy, empowerment, and hope. After controlling for level of depression, these relationships remained significant with the exception of the relation between empowerment and harm SSMIS-SF subscale. Future research with the SSMIS-SF should evaluate its sensitivity to change and its stability through test-rest reliability.

The internalization of public stigma by persons with serious mental illnesses may lead to self-stigma, which harms self-esteem, self-efficacy, and empowerment. Previous research has evaluated a hierarchical model that distinguishes among stereotype awareness, agreement, application to self, and harm to self with the 40-item Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (SSMIS). This study addressed SSMIS critiques (too long, contains offensive items that discourages test completion) by strategically omitting half of the original scale's items. Here we report reliability and validity of the 20-item short form (SSMIS-SF) based on data from three previous studies. Retained items were rated less offensive by a sample of consumers. Results indicated adequate internal consistencies for each subscale. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed subscale means progressively diminished from awareness to harm. In support of its validity, the harm subscale was found to be inversely and significantly related to self-esteem, self-efficacy, empowerment, and hope. After controlling for level of depression, these relationships remained significant with the exception of the relation between empowerment and harm SSMIS-SF subscale. Future research with the SSMIS-SF should evaluate its sensitivity to change and its stability through test-rest reliability.

Citations

19 citations in Web of Science®
21 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Clinical and Social Psychiatry Zurich West (former)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:13 Feb 2013 07:38
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:24
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0165-1781
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2012.04.009
PubMed ID:22578819

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