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Prediction of outcome by early bone marrow response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in the ALL-BFM 95 trial: differential effects in precursor B-cell and T-cell leukemia


Lauten, Melchior; Möricke, Anja; Beier, Rita; Zimmermann, Martin; Stanulla, Martin; Meissner, Barbara; Odenwald, Edelgard; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Niggli, Felix; Riehm, Hansjörg; Schrappe, Martin (2012). Prediction of outcome by early bone marrow response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in the ALL-BFM 95 trial: differential effects in precursor B-cell and T-cell leukemia. Haematologica, 97(7):1048-1056.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In the ALL-BFM 95 trial for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, response to a prednisone pre-phase (prednisone response) was used for risk stratification in combination with age and white blood cell count at diagnosis, response to induction therapy and specific genetic high-risk features.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Cytomorphological marrow response was prospectively assessed on Day 15 during induction, and its prognostic value was analyzed in 1,431 patients treated on ALL-BFM 95.
RESULTS: The 8-year probabilities of event-free survival were 86.1%, 74.5%, and 46.4% for patients with M1, M2, and M3 Day 15 marrows, respectively. Compared to prednisone response, Day 15 marrow response was superior in outcome prediction in precursor B-cell and T-cell leukemia with, however, a differential effect depending on blast lineage. Outcome was poor in T-cell leukemia patients with prednisone poor-response independent of Day 15 marrow response, whereas among patients with prednisone good-response different risk groups could be identified by Day 15 marrow response. In contrast, prednisone response lost prognostic significance in precursor B-cell leukemia when stratified by Day 15 marrow response. Age and white blood cell count retained their independent prognostic effect.
CONCLUSIONS: Selective addition of Day 15 marrow response to conventional stratification criteria applied on ALL-BFM 95 (currently in use in several countries as regular chemotherapy protocol for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia) may significantly improve risk-adapted treatment delivery. Even though cutting-edge trial risk stratification is meanwhile dominated by minimal residual disease evaluation, an improved conventional risk assessment, as presented here, could be of great importance to countries that lack the technical and/or financial resources associated with the application of minimal residual disease analysis.

BACKGROUND: In the ALL-BFM 95 trial for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, response to a prednisone pre-phase (prednisone response) was used for risk stratification in combination with age and white blood cell count at diagnosis, response to induction therapy and specific genetic high-risk features.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Cytomorphological marrow response was prospectively assessed on Day 15 during induction, and its prognostic value was analyzed in 1,431 patients treated on ALL-BFM 95.
RESULTS: The 8-year probabilities of event-free survival were 86.1%, 74.5%, and 46.4% for patients with M1, M2, and M3 Day 15 marrows, respectively. Compared to prednisone response, Day 15 marrow response was superior in outcome prediction in precursor B-cell and T-cell leukemia with, however, a differential effect depending on blast lineage. Outcome was poor in T-cell leukemia patients with prednisone poor-response independent of Day 15 marrow response, whereas among patients with prednisone good-response different risk groups could be identified by Day 15 marrow response. In contrast, prednisone response lost prognostic significance in precursor B-cell leukemia when stratified by Day 15 marrow response. Age and white blood cell count retained their independent prognostic effect.
CONCLUSIONS: Selective addition of Day 15 marrow response to conventional stratification criteria applied on ALL-BFM 95 (currently in use in several countries as regular chemotherapy protocol for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia) may significantly improve risk-adapted treatment delivery. Even though cutting-edge trial risk stratification is meanwhile dominated by minimal residual disease evaluation, an improved conventional risk assessment, as presented here, could be of great importance to countries that lack the technical and/or financial resources associated with the application of minimal residual disease analysis.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:July 2012
Deposited On:22 Feb 2013 09:35
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:32
Publisher:Ferrata Storti Foundation
ISSN:0390-6078
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2011.047613
PubMed ID:22271901
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-74033

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