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Pavlov's types of nervous system, Eysenck's typology and the Hippocrates-Galen temperaments: An empirical examination of the asserted correspondence of three temperament typologies


Ruch, Willibald (1992). Pavlov's types of nervous system, Eysenck's typology and the Hippocrates-Galen temperaments: An empirical examination of the asserted correspondence of three temperament typologies. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(12):1259-1271.

Abstract

Both Pavlov and Eysenck equate their typologies with the Hippocrates-Galen temperaments. In Eysenck's system, the melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic and sanguine temperaments result from different combinations of the superfactors Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N). The Pavlovian types of nervous system (TNS) are based on configurations of the three nervous system properties of strength, mobility, and balance of the nervous processes of excitation and inhibition. The proclaimed identity of the three typologies allowed us to (a) derive and evaluate hypotheses regarding differences between the four Hippocrates-Galen temperaments with respect to strength, mobility, and balance of the nervous processes of excitation and inhibition, (b) deduce and test hypotheses regarding the relationship between the Eysenckian typology and Pavlov's TNS, and (c) derive hypotheses regarding the dimensional relationship between the superfactors E and N and the Pavlovian nervous system properties as measured by the Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS; Strelau et al., 1990, European Journal of Personality, 4, 209�235). The hypotheses were tested in three samples comprising 159, 102, and 112 adults, respectively. Most of the results were in line with the predictions. The main discrepancy refers to the finding that the sanguine temperament seems to be as unbalanced as the choleric temperament. However, whereas the low balance of the latter is due to weak inhibitory processes, the low balance of the former is due to unexpectedly strong excitatory processes in the sanguine temperament.

Both Pavlov and Eysenck equate their typologies with the Hippocrates-Galen temperaments. In Eysenck's system, the melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic and sanguine temperaments result from different combinations of the superfactors Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N). The Pavlovian types of nervous system (TNS) are based on configurations of the three nervous system properties of strength, mobility, and balance of the nervous processes of excitation and inhibition. The proclaimed identity of the three typologies allowed us to (a) derive and evaluate hypotheses regarding differences between the four Hippocrates-Galen temperaments with respect to strength, mobility, and balance of the nervous processes of excitation and inhibition, (b) deduce and test hypotheses regarding the relationship between the Eysenckian typology and Pavlov's TNS, and (c) derive hypotheses regarding the dimensional relationship between the superfactors E and N and the Pavlovian nervous system properties as measured by the Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS; Strelau et al., 1990, European Journal of Personality, 4, 209�235). The hypotheses were tested in three samples comprising 159, 102, and 112 adults, respectively. Most of the results were in line with the predictions. The main discrepancy refers to the finding that the sanguine temperament seems to be as unbalanced as the choleric temperament. However, whereas the low balance of the latter is due to weak inhibitory processes, the low balance of the former is due to unexpectedly strong excitatory processes in the sanguine temperament.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Language:English
Date:1992
Deposited On:19 Apr 2013 09:03
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:45
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0191-8869
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90168-O
Official URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/019188699290168O

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