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End-tidal CO(2): An important parameter for a correct interpretation in functional brain studies using speech tasks


Scholkmann, F; Gerber, U; Wolf, M; Wolf, U (2013). End-tidal CO(2): An important parameter for a correct interpretation in functional brain studies using speech tasks. NeuroImage, 66:71-79.

Abstract

The aim was to investigate the effect of different speech tasks, i.e. recitation of prose (PR), alliteration (AR) and hexameter (HR) verses and a control task (mental arithmetic (MA) with voicing of the result on end-tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)), cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. CO(2) levels in the blood are known to strongly affect cerebral blood flow. Speech changes breathing pattern and may affect CO(2) levels. Measurements were performed on 24 healthy adult volunteers during the performance of the 4 tasks. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO(2)) and absolute concentrations of oxyhemoglobin ([O(2)Hb]), deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) and total hemoglobin ([tHb]) were measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and P(ET)CO(2) by a gas analyzer. Statistical analysis was applied to the difference between baseline before the task, 2 recitation and 5 baseline periods after the task. The 2 brain hemispheres and 4 tasks were tested separately. A significant decrease in P(ET)CO(2) was found during all 4 tasks with the smallest decrease during the MA task. During the recitation tasks (PR, AR and HR) a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease occurred for StO(2) during PR and AR in the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and during AR and HR in the left PFC. [O(2)Hb] decreased significantly during PR, AR and HR in both hemispheres. [HHb] increased significantly during the AR task in the right PFC. [tHb] decreased significantly during HR in the right PFC and during PR, AR and HR in the left PFC. During the MA task, StO(2) increased and [HHb] decreased significantly during the MA task. We conclude that changes in breathing (hyperventilation) during the tasks led to lower CO(2) pressure in the blood (hypocapnia), predominantly responsible for the measured changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that P(ET)CO(2) should be monitored during functional brain studies investigating speech using neuroimaging modalities, such as fNIRS, fMRI to ensure a correct interpretation of changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation.

Abstract

The aim was to investigate the effect of different speech tasks, i.e. recitation of prose (PR), alliteration (AR) and hexameter (HR) verses and a control task (mental arithmetic (MA) with voicing of the result on end-tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)), cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. CO(2) levels in the blood are known to strongly affect cerebral blood flow. Speech changes breathing pattern and may affect CO(2) levels. Measurements were performed on 24 healthy adult volunteers during the performance of the 4 tasks. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO(2)) and absolute concentrations of oxyhemoglobin ([O(2)Hb]), deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) and total hemoglobin ([tHb]) were measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and P(ET)CO(2) by a gas analyzer. Statistical analysis was applied to the difference between baseline before the task, 2 recitation and 5 baseline periods after the task. The 2 brain hemispheres and 4 tasks were tested separately. A significant decrease in P(ET)CO(2) was found during all 4 tasks with the smallest decrease during the MA task. During the recitation tasks (PR, AR and HR) a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease occurred for StO(2) during PR and AR in the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and during AR and HR in the left PFC. [O(2)Hb] decreased significantly during PR, AR and HR in both hemispheres. [HHb] increased significantly during the AR task in the right PFC. [tHb] decreased significantly during HR in the right PFC and during PR, AR and HR in the left PFC. During the MA task, StO(2) increased and [HHb] decreased significantly during the MA task. We conclude that changes in breathing (hyperventilation) during the tasks led to lower CO(2) pressure in the blood (hypocapnia), predominantly responsible for the measured changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that P(ET)CO(2) should be monitored during functional brain studies investigating speech using neuroimaging modalities, such as fNIRS, fMRI to ensure a correct interpretation of changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation.

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26 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neonatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:February 2013
Deposited On:30 Jul 2013 12:16
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 16:53
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1053-8119
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.025
PubMed ID:23099101

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