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Pan-genome analysis of the emerging foodborne pathogen Cronobacter spp. suggests a species-level bidirectional divergence driven by niche adaptation


Grim, C J; Kotewicz, M L; Power, K A; Gopinath, G; Franco, A A; Jarvis, K G; Yan, Q Q; Jackson, S A; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Pagotto, F; Iversen, C; Lehner, A; Stephan, R; Fanning, S; Tall, B D (2013). Pan-genome analysis of the emerging foodborne pathogen Cronobacter spp. suggests a species-level bidirectional divergence driven by niche adaptation. BMC Genomics, 14:366.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Cronobacter are causes of rare but severe illness in neonates and preterm infants following the ingestion of contaminated infant formula. Seven species have been described and two of the species genomes were subsequently published. In this study, we performed comparative genomics on eight strains of Cronobacter, including six that we sequenced (representing six of the seven species) and two previously published, closed genomes. RESULTS: We identified and characterized the features associated with the core and pan genome of the genus Cronobacter in an attempt to understand the evolution of these bacteria and the genetic content of each species. We identified 84 genomic regions that are present in two or more Cronobacter genomes, along with 45 unique genomic regions. Many potentially horizontally transferred genes, such as lysogenic prophages, were also identified. Most notable among these were several type six secretion system gene clusters, transposons that carried tellurium, copper and/or silver resistance genes, and a novel integrative conjugative element. CONCLUSIONS: Cronobacter have diverged into two clusters, one consisting of C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii (Cdub-Cmuy) and the other comprised of C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. universalis, and C. turicensis, (Csak-Cmal-Cuni-Ctur) from the most recent common ancestral species. While several genetic determinants for plant-association and human virulence could be found in the core genome of Cronobacter, the four Cdub-Cmuy clade genomes contained several accessory genomic regions important for survival in a plant-associated environmental niche, while the Csak-Cmal-Cuni-Ctur clade genomes harbored numerous virulence-related genetic traits.

BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Cronobacter are causes of rare but severe illness in neonates and preterm infants following the ingestion of contaminated infant formula. Seven species have been described and two of the species genomes were subsequently published. In this study, we performed comparative genomics on eight strains of Cronobacter, including six that we sequenced (representing six of the seven species) and two previously published, closed genomes. RESULTS: We identified and characterized the features associated with the core and pan genome of the genus Cronobacter in an attempt to understand the evolution of these bacteria and the genetic content of each species. We identified 84 genomic regions that are present in two or more Cronobacter genomes, along with 45 unique genomic regions. Many potentially horizontally transferred genes, such as lysogenic prophages, were also identified. Most notable among these were several type six secretion system gene clusters, transposons that carried tellurium, copper and/or silver resistance genes, and a novel integrative conjugative element. CONCLUSIONS: Cronobacter have diverged into two clusters, one consisting of C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii (Cdub-Cmuy) and the other comprised of C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. universalis, and C. turicensis, (Csak-Cmal-Cuni-Ctur) from the most recent common ancestral species. While several genetic determinants for plant-association and human virulence could be found in the core genome of Cronobacter, the four Cdub-Cmuy clade genomes contained several accessory genomic regions important for survival in a plant-associated environmental niche, while the Csak-Cmal-Cuni-Ctur clade genomes harbored numerous virulence-related genetic traits.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Food Safety and Hygiene
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:17 Oct 2013 12:00
Last Modified:10 Nov 2016 14:21
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-2164
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-366
PubMed ID:23724777
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-81828

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