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Bartonella species infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management


Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Marsilio, Fulvio; Hartmann, Katrin; Lloret, Albert; Addie, Diane; Belák, Sándor; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Möstl, Karin; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Horzinek, Marian C (2013). Bartonella species infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 15(7):563-569.

Abstract

OVERVIEW: Over 22 Bartonella species have been described in mammals, and Bartonella henselae is most common worldwide. Cats are the main reservoir for this bacterium. B henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease in man, a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy, but also of other potentially fatal disorders in immunocompromised people.
INFECTION: B henselae is naturally transmitted among cats by the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, or by flea faeces. A cat scratch is the common mode of transmission of the organism to other animals, including humans. Blood transfusion also represents a risk.
DISEASE SIGNS: Most cats naturally infected by B henselae do not show clinical signs but cardiac (endocarditis, myocarditis) or ocular (uveitis) signs may be found in sporadic cases. B vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii infection has reportedly caused lameness in a cat affected by recurrent osteomyelitis and polyarthritis.
DIAGNOSIS: Isolation of the bacterium is the gold standard, but because of the high prevalence of infection in healthy cats in endemic areas, a positive culture (or polymerase chain reaction) is not confirmatory. Other compatible diagnoses must be ruled out and response to therapy gives a definitive diagnosis. Serology (IFAT or ELISA) is more useful for exclusion of the infection because of the low positive predictive value (39-46%) compared with the good negative predictive value (87-97%). Laboratory testing is required for blood donors.
DISEASE MANAGEMENT: Treatment is recommended in the rare cases where Bartonella actually causes disease.

Abstract

OVERVIEW: Over 22 Bartonella species have been described in mammals, and Bartonella henselae is most common worldwide. Cats are the main reservoir for this bacterium. B henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease in man, a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy, but also of other potentially fatal disorders in immunocompromised people.
INFECTION: B henselae is naturally transmitted among cats by the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, or by flea faeces. A cat scratch is the common mode of transmission of the organism to other animals, including humans. Blood transfusion also represents a risk.
DISEASE SIGNS: Most cats naturally infected by B henselae do not show clinical signs but cardiac (endocarditis, myocarditis) or ocular (uveitis) signs may be found in sporadic cases. B vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii infection has reportedly caused lameness in a cat affected by recurrent osteomyelitis and polyarthritis.
DIAGNOSIS: Isolation of the bacterium is the gold standard, but because of the high prevalence of infection in healthy cats in endemic areas, a positive culture (or polymerase chain reaction) is not confirmatory. Other compatible diagnoses must be ruled out and response to therapy gives a definitive diagnosis. Serology (IFAT or ELISA) is more useful for exclusion of the infection because of the low positive predictive value (39-46%) compared with the good negative predictive value (87-97%). Laboratory testing is required for blood donors.
DISEASE MANAGEMENT: Treatment is recommended in the rare cases where Bartonella actually causes disease.

Citations

13 citations in Web of Science®
16 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:17 Feb 2014 11:11
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 17:13
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1098-612X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X13489214
PubMed ID:23813816

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