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Phenotyping of N-acetyltransferase type 2 and xanthine oxidase with caffeine: when should urine samples be collected?


Jetter, A; Kinzig, M; Rodamer, M; Tomalik-Scharte, D; Sörgel, F; Fuhr, U (2009). Phenotyping of N-acetyltransferase type 2 and xanthine oxidase with caffeine: when should urine samples be collected? European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65(4):411-417.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Individual activities of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and of xanthine oxidase (XO) can be assessed using ratios of urinary caffeine metabolites. We investigated how ratios changed over time and which urine collection interval would be the best for NAT2 and XO activity assessments. METHODS: On two occasions separated by 14 days, 16 healthy male Caucasians collected urine before and 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-12, 12-16 and 16-24 h after a dose of 150 mg caffeine given in the framework of a phenotyping cocktail study. The metabolites 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU), 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil (AAMU), 1-methylxanthine (1X), and 1-methylurate (1U) were quantified with LC-MS/MS. The molar ratio (AFMU + AAMU)/(1X + 1U + AFMU + AAMU) was used as a NAT2 metric, while the ratio 1U/(1X + 1U) served as XO metric. RESULTS: The NAT2 ratios were stable in the intervals 4-24 h after caffeine dosing. Mean intra-individual coefficients of variation were 11-23% starting 4 h post-dose, while inter-individual variability reached 37-75%. The XO ratios increased gradually by 14% from the 2-4 to the 16-24 h interval. The mean intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation of XO activity were 3-18 and 7-10% respectively. No significant differences between study occasions were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Any sampling interval at least 4 h after caffeine dosing is suitable for NAT2 and XO activity assessments. XO activities can only be compared between volunteers and studies if the same urine collection schedule has been respected. The low intraindividual variability allows for sample sizes of 16 and 6 participants in crossover interaction studies of NAT2 and XO activity respectively.

OBJECTIVES: Individual activities of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and of xanthine oxidase (XO) can be assessed using ratios of urinary caffeine metabolites. We investigated how ratios changed over time and which urine collection interval would be the best for NAT2 and XO activity assessments. METHODS: On two occasions separated by 14 days, 16 healthy male Caucasians collected urine before and 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-12, 12-16 and 16-24 h after a dose of 150 mg caffeine given in the framework of a phenotyping cocktail study. The metabolites 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU), 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil (AAMU), 1-methylxanthine (1X), and 1-methylurate (1U) were quantified with LC-MS/MS. The molar ratio (AFMU + AAMU)/(1X + 1U + AFMU + AAMU) was used as a NAT2 metric, while the ratio 1U/(1X + 1U) served as XO metric. RESULTS: The NAT2 ratios were stable in the intervals 4-24 h after caffeine dosing. Mean intra-individual coefficients of variation were 11-23% starting 4 h post-dose, while inter-individual variability reached 37-75%. The XO ratios increased gradually by 14% from the 2-4 to the 16-24 h interval. The mean intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation of XO activity were 3-18 and 7-10% respectively. No significant differences between study occasions were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Any sampling interval at least 4 h after caffeine dosing is suitable for NAT2 and XO activity assessments. XO activities can only be compared between volunteers and studies if the same urine collection schedule has been respected. The low intraindividual variability allows for sample sizes of 16 and 6 participants in crossover interaction studies of NAT2 and XO activity respectively.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:April 2009
Deposited On:06 Jan 2009 17:29
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:44
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0031-6970
Additional Information:The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
Publisher DOI:10.1007/s00228-008-0597-0
PubMed ID:19082994
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-8830

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