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The role of domestic hygiene in inflammatory bowel diseases: hepatitis A and worm infestations


Hafner, S; Timmer, A; Herfarth, H; Rogler, G; Schölmerich, J; Schäffler, A; Ehrenstein, B; Jilg, W; Ott, C; Strauch, U G; Obermeier, F (2008). The role of domestic hygiene in inflammatory bowel diseases: hepatitis A and worm infestations. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 20(6):561-566.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as the incidence of both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) increased with improved living standards in Europe after World War II. On the basis of earlier reports suggesting that hygienic standards may also play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD, we investigated the influence of hepatitis A seroprevalence as an indicator for poorer hygienic conditions and worm infestations in IBD. METHODS: Hepatitis A seroprevalence was examined in patients with UC and CD. Patients with minor endocrinological disorders served as controls. All patients were questioned about immunizations, parasitic infections (worms), contact with animals, living on a farm, and ever traveling abroad. Patients were excluded for active hepatitis A immunization or recent passive immunization. Results are presented as Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios with 95% confidence interval, adjusted for age group. RESULTS: The sample included 307 patients (73 CD, 48 UC, and 186 controls). Hepatitis A seroprevalence was strongly associated with age older than 50 years. Age adjusted Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were 0.25 (0.09-0.71) for UC and 0.75 (0.38-1.46) for CD versus controls. For parasitic infections, the odds ratios were 1.15 (0.52-2.53) for UC and 0.34 (0.13-0.89) for CD. CONCLUSION: We were able to demonstrate a negative association of hepatitis A infection with UC only. In contrast, a novel finding was a strong protective effect of worm infestations for the occurrence of CD, but not UC.

BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as the incidence of both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) increased with improved living standards in Europe after World War II. On the basis of earlier reports suggesting that hygienic standards may also play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD, we investigated the influence of hepatitis A seroprevalence as an indicator for poorer hygienic conditions and worm infestations in IBD. METHODS: Hepatitis A seroprevalence was examined in patients with UC and CD. Patients with minor endocrinological disorders served as controls. All patients were questioned about immunizations, parasitic infections (worms), contact with animals, living on a farm, and ever traveling abroad. Patients were excluded for active hepatitis A immunization or recent passive immunization. Results are presented as Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios with 95% confidence interval, adjusted for age group. RESULTS: The sample included 307 patients (73 CD, 48 UC, and 186 controls). Hepatitis A seroprevalence was strongly associated with age older than 50 years. Age adjusted Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were 0.25 (0.09-0.71) for UC and 0.75 (0.38-1.46) for CD versus controls. For parasitic infections, the odds ratios were 1.15 (0.52-2.53) for UC and 0.34 (0.13-0.89) for CD. CONCLUSION: We were able to demonstrate a negative association of hepatitis A infection with UC only. In contrast, a novel finding was a strong protective effect of worm infestations for the occurrence of CD, but not UC.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:June 2008
Deposited On:05 Jan 2009 13:35
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:47
Publisher:Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins
ISSN:0954-691X
Publisher DOI:10.1097/MEG.0b013e3282f495dd
PubMed ID:18467916
Permanent URL: http://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-9613

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