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Assessing direct paths of intracortical causal information flow of oscillatory activity with the isolated effective coherence (iCoh)


Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Biscay, Rolando J; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Lehmann, Dietrich; Kochi, Kieko; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Yamada, Naoto; Sadato, Norihiro (2014). Assessing direct paths of intracortical causal information flow of oscillatory activity with the isolated effective coherence (iCoh). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8:448.

Abstract

Functional connectivity is of central importance in understanding brain function. For this purpose, multiple time series of electric cortical activity can be used for assessing the properties of a network: the strength, directionality, and spectral characteristics (i.e., which oscillations are preferentially transmitted) of the connections. The partial directed coherence (PDC) of Baccala and Sameshima (2001) is a widely used method for this problem. The three aims of this study are: (1) To show that the PDC can misrepresent the frequency response under plausible realistic conditions, thus defeating the main purpose for which the measure was developed; (2) To provide a solution to this problem, namely the "isolated effective coherence" (iCoh), which consists of estimating the partial coherence under a multivariate autoregressive model, followed by setting all irrelevant associations to zero, other than the particular directional association of interest; and (3) To show that adequate iCoh estimators can be obtained from non-invasively computed cortical signals based on exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) applied to scalp EEG recordings. To illustrate the severity of the problem with the PDC, and the solution achieved by the iCoh, three examples are given, based on: (1) Simulated time series with known dynamics; (2) Simulated cortical sources with known dynamics, used for generating EEG recordings, which are then used for estimating (with eLORETA) the source signals for the final connectivity assessment; and (3) EEG recordings in rats. Lastly, real human recordings are analyzed, where the iCoh between six cortical regions of interest are calculated and compared under eyes open and closed conditions, using 61-channel EEG recordings from 109 subjects. During eyes closed, the posterior cingulate sends alpha activity to all other regions. During eyes open, the anterior cingulate sends theta-alpha activity to other frontal regions.

Functional connectivity is of central importance in understanding brain function. For this purpose, multiple time series of electric cortical activity can be used for assessing the properties of a network: the strength, directionality, and spectral characteristics (i.e., which oscillations are preferentially transmitted) of the connections. The partial directed coherence (PDC) of Baccala and Sameshima (2001) is a widely used method for this problem. The three aims of this study are: (1) To show that the PDC can misrepresent the frequency response under plausible realistic conditions, thus defeating the main purpose for which the measure was developed; (2) To provide a solution to this problem, namely the "isolated effective coherence" (iCoh), which consists of estimating the partial coherence under a multivariate autoregressive model, followed by setting all irrelevant associations to zero, other than the particular directional association of interest; and (3) To show that adequate iCoh estimators can be obtained from non-invasively computed cortical signals based on exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) applied to scalp EEG recordings. To illustrate the severity of the problem with the PDC, and the solution achieved by the iCoh, three examples are given, based on: (1) Simulated time series with known dynamics; (2) Simulated cortical sources with known dynamics, used for generating EEG recordings, which are then used for estimating (with eLORETA) the source signals for the final connectivity assessment; and (3) EEG recordings in rats. Lastly, real human recordings are analyzed, where the iCoh between six cortical regions of interest are calculated and compared under eyes open and closed conditions, using 61-channel EEG recordings from 109 subjects. During eyes closed, the posterior cingulate sends alpha activity to all other regions. During eyes open, the anterior cingulate sends theta-alpha activity to other frontal regions.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
04 Faculty of Medicine > The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:LORETA; alpha oscillation connectivity; causal intracortical connectivity; isolated effective coherence; resting state electriphysiological connectivity
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:15 Sep 2014 12:18
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:22
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1662-5161
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00448
PubMed ID:24999323
Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-98616

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