Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Retrograde arterialized free venous flaps for the reconstruction of the hand: review of 14 cases


Giesen, Thomas; Forster, Natasha; Künzi, Walter; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio (2014). Retrograde arterialized free venous flaps for the reconstruction of the hand: review of 14 cases. Journal of Hand Surgery, 39(3):511-523.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Although the literature is encouraging with regard to the survival rate of arterialized free venous flaps, previously reported difficulty in healing owing to early venous congestion and subsequent epidermolysis continues to prevent their widespread application. We report 14 arterialized free venous flaps for primary reconstruction of the hand, with inflow in the arterialized vein running against the valves.

METHODS
Between February 2010 and May 2012, we performed 14 arterialized free venous flaps, each of which included at least 2 veins running in parallel. The arterialized vein was anastomosed in a retrograde manner, with the inflow running against the valves. All flaps were customized with regard to dimension, shape, quality of skin, pedicle length, vessel size, inclusion of additional anatomical structures, and donor site. The flaps were used to cover small, medium, and large defects; 2 flaps were larger than 100 cm(2). Three flaps were injected with indocyanine green on the table after harvesting, to visualize the vascular tree of the flap. These 3 flaps were then monitored with systemic indocyanine green injection and an infrared camera for 3 days postoperatively.

RESULTS
All but 1 flap survived. Venous congestion and epidermolysis were observed in 2 small flaps. The flaps injected with indocyanine green displayed a ramified vascular tree with no arteriovenous flow-through phenomenon.

CONCLUSIONS
Arterialized free venous flaps with retrograde arterial flow offer thin and pliable coverage that fits easily around the contours of the hand. They are easy to harvest, with little donor site morbidity. Tendons or nerves can be incorporated for reconstruction of composite defects.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Our series suggests the possibility of routine use of a free venous flap with retrograde arterial flow for reconstruction of the hand.

TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Therapeutic IV.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Although the literature is encouraging with regard to the survival rate of arterialized free venous flaps, previously reported difficulty in healing owing to early venous congestion and subsequent epidermolysis continues to prevent their widespread application. We report 14 arterialized free venous flaps for primary reconstruction of the hand, with inflow in the arterialized vein running against the valves.

METHODS
Between February 2010 and May 2012, we performed 14 arterialized free venous flaps, each of which included at least 2 veins running in parallel. The arterialized vein was anastomosed in a retrograde manner, with the inflow running against the valves. All flaps were customized with regard to dimension, shape, quality of skin, pedicle length, vessel size, inclusion of additional anatomical structures, and donor site. The flaps were used to cover small, medium, and large defects; 2 flaps were larger than 100 cm(2). Three flaps were injected with indocyanine green on the table after harvesting, to visualize the vascular tree of the flap. These 3 flaps were then monitored with systemic indocyanine green injection and an infrared camera for 3 days postoperatively.

RESULTS
All but 1 flap survived. Venous congestion and epidermolysis were observed in 2 small flaps. The flaps injected with indocyanine green displayed a ramified vascular tree with no arteriovenous flow-through phenomenon.

CONCLUSIONS
Arterialized free venous flaps with retrograde arterial flow offer thin and pliable coverage that fits easily around the contours of the hand. They are easy to harvest, with little donor site morbidity. Tendons or nerves can be incorporated for reconstruction of composite defects.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Our series suggests the possibility of routine use of a free venous flap with retrograde arterial flow for reconstruction of the hand.

TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Therapeutic IV.

Statistics

Citations

5 citations in Web of Science®
4 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Reconstructive Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:March 2014
Deposited On:04 Nov 2014 08:32
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:27
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0363-5023
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.12.002
PubMed ID:24559628

Download

Full text not available from this repository.
View at publisher

TrendTerms

TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents.
You can navigate and zoom the map. Mouse-hovering a term displays its timeline, clicking it yields the associated documents.

Author Collaborations