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Mechanisms of renal control of potassium homeostasis in complete aldosterone deficiency


Todkar, Abhijeet; Picard, Nicolas; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Sorensen, Mads V; Mihailova, Marija; Nesterov, Viatcheslav; Makhanova, Natalia; Korbmacher, Christoph; Wagner, Carsten A; Loffing, Johannes (2015). Mechanisms of renal control of potassium homeostasis in complete aldosterone deficiency. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN), 26(2):425-438.

Abstract

Aldosterone-independent mechanisms may contribute to K(+) homeostasis. We studied aldosterone synthase knockout (AS(-/-)) mice to define renal control mechanisms of K(+) homeostasis in complete aldosterone deficiency. AS(-/-) mice were normokalemic and tolerated a physiologic dietary K(+) load (2% K(+), 2 days) without signs of illness, except some degree of polyuria. With supraphysiologic K(+) intake (5% K(+)), AS(-/-) mice decompensated and became hyperkalemic. High-K(+) diets induced upregulation of the renal outer medullary K(+) channel in AS(-/-) mice, whereas upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) sufficient to increase the electrochemical driving force for K(+) excretion was detected only with a 2% K(+) diet. Phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter was consistently lower in AS(-/-) mice than in AS(+/+) mice and was downregulated in mice of both genotypes in response to increased K(+) intake. Inhibition of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor reduced renal creatinine clearance and apical ENaC localization, and caused severe hyperkalemia in AS(-/-) mice. In contrast with the kidney, the distal colon of AS(-/-) mice did not respond to dietary K(+) loading, as indicated by Ussing-type chamber experiments. Thus, renal adaptation to a physiologic, but not supraphysiologic, K(+) load can be achieved in aldosterone deficiency by aldosterone-independent activation of the renal outer medullary K(+) channel and ENaC, to which angiotensin II may contribute. Enhanced urinary flow and reduced activity of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter may support renal adaptation by activation of flow-dependent K(+) secretion and increased intratubular availability of Na(+) that can be reabsorbed in exchange for K(+) secreted.

Abstract

Aldosterone-independent mechanisms may contribute to K(+) homeostasis. We studied aldosterone synthase knockout (AS(-/-)) mice to define renal control mechanisms of K(+) homeostasis in complete aldosterone deficiency. AS(-/-) mice were normokalemic and tolerated a physiologic dietary K(+) load (2% K(+), 2 days) without signs of illness, except some degree of polyuria. With supraphysiologic K(+) intake (5% K(+)), AS(-/-) mice decompensated and became hyperkalemic. High-K(+) diets induced upregulation of the renal outer medullary K(+) channel in AS(-/-) mice, whereas upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) sufficient to increase the electrochemical driving force for K(+) excretion was detected only with a 2% K(+) diet. Phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter was consistently lower in AS(-/-) mice than in AS(+/+) mice and was downregulated in mice of both genotypes in response to increased K(+) intake. Inhibition of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor reduced renal creatinine clearance and apical ENaC localization, and caused severe hyperkalemia in AS(-/-) mice. In contrast with the kidney, the distal colon of AS(-/-) mice did not respond to dietary K(+) loading, as indicated by Ussing-type chamber experiments. Thus, renal adaptation to a physiologic, but not supraphysiologic, K(+) load can be achieved in aldosterone deficiency by aldosterone-independent activation of the renal outer medullary K(+) channel and ENaC, to which angiotensin II may contribute. Enhanced urinary flow and reduced activity of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter may support renal adaptation by activation of flow-dependent K(+) secretion and increased intratubular availability of Na(+) that can be reabsorbed in exchange for K(+) secreted.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Anatomy
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology

04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:05 Nov 2014 12:43
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:28
Publisher:American Society of Nephrology
ISSN:1046-6673
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013111156
PubMed ID:25071088

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