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Genetic diseases of renal phosphate handling


Wagner, Carsten A; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati (2014). Genetic diseases of renal phosphate handling. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, 29 Suppl:iv45-iv54.

Abstract

UNLABELLED: Renal control of systemic phosphate homeostasis is critical as evident from inborn and acquired diseases causing renal phosphate wasting. At least three transport proteins are responsible for renal phosphate reabsorption: NAPI-IIa (SLC34A1), NAPI-IIc (SLC34A3) and PIT-2 (SLC20A2). These transporters are highly regulated by various cellular mechanisms and factors including acid-base status, electrolyte balance and hormones such as dopamine, glucocorticoids, growth factors, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Whether renal phosphate wasting is caused by inactivating mutations in the NAPI-IIa transporter is controversial. Mutations in the NAPI-IIc transporter cause hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. Besides the primary inherited defects, there are also inherited defects in major regulators of phosphate homeostasis that lead to alterations in phosphate handling. Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets is due to FGF23 mutations leading to resistance against its own degradation. Similarly, inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene, which causes FGF23 inactivation, cause X-linked hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate losses. In contrast, mutations in galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase, responsible for O-glycosylation of FGF23, or in klotho, a cofactor for FGF23 signalling result in hyperphosphatemia. Acquired syndromes of renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia (tumour-associated osteomalacia) can be due to the excessive synthesis or release of phosphaturic factors (FGF23, FGF-7, MEPE and sFRP4) from mesenchymal tumours.

Abstract

UNLABELLED: Renal control of systemic phosphate homeostasis is critical as evident from inborn and acquired diseases causing renal phosphate wasting. At least three transport proteins are responsible for renal phosphate reabsorption: NAPI-IIa (SLC34A1), NAPI-IIc (SLC34A3) and PIT-2 (SLC20A2). These transporters are highly regulated by various cellular mechanisms and factors including acid-base status, electrolyte balance and hormones such as dopamine, glucocorticoids, growth factors, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Whether renal phosphate wasting is caused by inactivating mutations in the NAPI-IIa transporter is controversial. Mutations in the NAPI-IIc transporter cause hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. Besides the primary inherited defects, there are also inherited defects in major regulators of phosphate homeostasis that lead to alterations in phosphate handling. Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets is due to FGF23 mutations leading to resistance against its own degradation. Similarly, inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene, which causes FGF23 inactivation, cause X-linked hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate losses. In contrast, mutations in galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase, responsible for O-glycosylation of FGF23, or in klotho, a cofactor for FGF23 signalling result in hyperphosphatemia. Acquired syndromes of renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia (tumour-associated osteomalacia) can be due to the excessive synthesis or release of phosphaturic factors (FGF23, FGF-7, MEPE and sFRP4) from mesenchymal tumours.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology

04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:September 2014
Deposited On:05 Nov 2014 14:51
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:28
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0931-0509
Additional Information:This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in NDT following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Wagner, Carsten A; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati (2014). Genetic diseases of renal phosphate handling. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, 29 Suppl:iv45-iv54 is available online at:http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/content/29/suppl_4/iv45.full.pdf+html
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfu217
PubMed ID:25165185

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