BACKGROUND G-protein receptor kinase 4 polymorphism influences blood pressure regulation via modulation of dopamine receptor D1 in renal proximal tubular cells. We investigated the role of G-protein receptor kinase 4 polymorphism in the response to hypertensive therapy in patients with essential hypertension. METHODS In a prospective study, we assessed the G-protein receptor kinase 4 polymorphisms R65L, A142V, and A486V in 100 hypertensive patients. We analyzed the association of the 3 gene variants on blood pressure control and response to antihypertensive therapy with single-locus analysis, haplotype analysis, and regression analysis. RESULTS Hypertensive individuals with a homozygous double variant of 65L and 142V needed significantly more antihypertensive treatment (number of antihypertensives 2.59 vs 1.95, P = 0.043) and especially diuretic therapy (0.82 vs 0.49, P = 0.029) to reach the same mean arterial blood pressure than did homozygous carriers of only 1 variant or heterozygous/wild-type carriers of R65L, A142V, and A486V alleles. CONCLUSIONS G-protein receptor kinase 4 polymorphism is associated with antihypertensive treatment response in patients with essential hypertension. Determination of G-protein receptor kinase 4 polymorphism may improve individual antihypertensive blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension.