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Personality and its inside and outside : a dyadic, developmental perspective


Schaffhuser, Kathrin. Personality and its inside and outside : a dyadic, developmental perspective. 2014, University of Zurich, Faculty of Arts.

Abstract

The present thesis examines individual and dyadic personality development with a particular focus on the context of intimate relationships. Furthermore, it investigates inside and outside perspectives on personality such as the self-, partner-, and meta-perception and their role for relationship satisfaction.
The introduction of the thesis centers on personality traits, their development across the life span and their interaction with the environment followed by methodological considerations. The introduction closes by an overview of the current work.
The main part of the thesis includes the four empirical studies that are now briefly summarized. Study 1 focuses on individual development of self-evaluative personality traits in the transition to early adolescence. In doing so, it investigates the role of gender, puberty, and school transition. Study 1 is based on longitudinal data of 205 adolescent children across three annual measurement occasions. The main results of Study 1 suggest that the transition to early adolescence is a critical period for self-development. Decreasing trajectories were found with respect to both global and domain-specific self-representations. Furthermore, inter- individual differences in the decreasing trajectories could be partly explained by gender (steeper decreases for girls) and school transition, whereas puberty was unrelated to developmental trajectories, but showed concurrent associations with self-representations.
Studies 2 and 3 are interested in the dyadic interplay between different perceptions of the Big Five personality traits (i.e., self-, partner-, and meta-perception) and relationship satisfaction. Whereas Study 2 focuses on the relatedness and distinction between the perceptions as well as their associations with relationship satisfaction, Study 3 examines associations between perception discrepancies and relationship satisfaction. The two studies are based on the same cross-sectional data consisting of 216 intimate couples. The findings of Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that the self-, partner-, and meta-perceptions are related, but distinct personality aspects. Furthermore, Study 2 shows that the three perspectives have similar, but also differential associations with relationship satisfaction. In addition, Study 3 indicates that not only personality level, but also the discrepancy between different perceptions is related to relationship satisfaction.
Study 4 investigates whether personality traits serve as both predictors and outcomes of relationship satisfaction as well as relationship climate while focusing on neuroticism and self-esteem. It includes longitudinal data across two measurement occasions over two years consisting of 141 intimate couples. The main findings of Study 4 indicate that neuroticism is a negative predictor for relationship satisfaction on the intra-personal level (i.e., actor effect), whereas self-esteem is a positive outcome of relationship satisfaction on the inter-personal level (i.e., partner effect). Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a positive relationship climate is predictive for high self-esteem two years later.
The discussion part of the thesis summarizes the main finding and gained knowledge based on the four empirical studies and discusses implications of the studies from an integrative perspective. Prior to the final conclusions, a first attempt to a theoretical model on personality development that involves the self-, other-, and meta-perception of personality is introduced called the “Trike Model of Personality Development”.

Abstract

The present thesis examines individual and dyadic personality development with a particular focus on the context of intimate relationships. Furthermore, it investigates inside and outside perspectives on personality such as the self-, partner-, and meta-perception and their role for relationship satisfaction.
The introduction of the thesis centers on personality traits, their development across the life span and their interaction with the environment followed by methodological considerations. The introduction closes by an overview of the current work.
The main part of the thesis includes the four empirical studies that are now briefly summarized. Study 1 focuses on individual development of self-evaluative personality traits in the transition to early adolescence. In doing so, it investigates the role of gender, puberty, and school transition. Study 1 is based on longitudinal data of 205 adolescent children across three annual measurement occasions. The main results of Study 1 suggest that the transition to early adolescence is a critical period for self-development. Decreasing trajectories were found with respect to both global and domain-specific self-representations. Furthermore, inter- individual differences in the decreasing trajectories could be partly explained by gender (steeper decreases for girls) and school transition, whereas puberty was unrelated to developmental trajectories, but showed concurrent associations with self-representations.
Studies 2 and 3 are interested in the dyadic interplay between different perceptions of the Big Five personality traits (i.e., self-, partner-, and meta-perception) and relationship satisfaction. Whereas Study 2 focuses on the relatedness and distinction between the perceptions as well as their associations with relationship satisfaction, Study 3 examines associations between perception discrepancies and relationship satisfaction. The two studies are based on the same cross-sectional data consisting of 216 intimate couples. The findings of Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that the self-, partner-, and meta-perceptions are related, but distinct personality aspects. Furthermore, Study 2 shows that the three perspectives have similar, but also differential associations with relationship satisfaction. In addition, Study 3 indicates that not only personality level, but also the discrepancy between different perceptions is related to relationship satisfaction.
Study 4 investigates whether personality traits serve as both predictors and outcomes of relationship satisfaction as well as relationship climate while focusing on neuroticism and self-esteem. It includes longitudinal data across two measurement occasions over two years consisting of 141 intimate couples. The main findings of Study 4 indicate that neuroticism is a negative predictor for relationship satisfaction on the intra-personal level (i.e., actor effect), whereas self-esteem is a positive outcome of relationship satisfaction on the inter-personal level (i.e., partner effect). Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a positive relationship climate is predictive for high self-esteem two years later.
The discussion part of the thesis summarizes the main finding and gained knowledge based on the four empirical studies and discusses implications of the studies from an integrative perspective. Prior to the final conclusions, a first attempt to a theoretical model on personality development that involves the self-, other-, and meta-perception of personality is introduced called the “Trike Model of Personality Development”.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Dissertation
Referees:Martin Mike, Grob Alexander
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Uncontrolled Keywords:DoktoratPSYCH Erstautor
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:27 Nov 2014 10:27
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:33
Number of Pages:186
Free access at:Official URL. An embargo period may apply.
Official URL:http://www.recherche-portal.ch/zbz/action/display.do?fn=display&vid=ZAD&doc=ebi01_prod010200554

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