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Photochemistry of some heterocyclic systems


Claus, Peter; Doppler, Thomas; Gakis, Nikolas; Georgarakis, Manolis; Giezendanner, Heinz; Gilgen, Paul; Heimgartner, Heinz; Jackson, Barry; Märky, Michael; Narasimhan, Nurani S; Rosenkranz, Hans Jürgen; Wunderli, Alfred; Hansen, Hans-Jürgen; Schmid, Hans (1973). Photochemistry of some heterocyclic systems. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 33(2-3):339-361.

Abstract

Whereas 2H-benztriazoles are photochemically stable, 1H-benztriazoles yield biradicals after spliting of nitrogen. These biradicals attack aromatic substrates such as anisole, toluene, fluorobenzene or benzonitrile preferentially in the o- and p-positions with formation of the corresponding o-aminobiphenyls (cf. schemes 2-5). With a deficiency of aromatic substrate, attack at the o-position is strongly favored (cf. Figures 1, 2). Thereafter the very complex photochemistry of 3,5-diaryl-2-isoxazolines will be discussed (cf. schemes 7-9). This led to the discovery of the photochemical cycloaddition between 3-phenyl-2H-azirines and aldehydes, with formation of 3-oxazolines (cf. schemes 10, 11). The nitrile methylene ylides produced photochemically from azirines react, mainly in good yield, with substrates which contain cumulative (cf. schemes 15, 16) or activated (cf. schemes 12,13) double bonds. Noteworthy, is the photochemical incorporation of carbon dioxide, leading to the little known isoazlactones (scheme 15). After a short discussion of the photochemistry of the sydnones (cf. schemes 19-23), which has been only briefly investigated so far, the photolysis of indazoles, benzisoxazoles, and anthranils in strongly acid solution will be discussed (cf. schemes 24-27). These photochemical reactions give rise to aryl azenium ions or aryl oxenium ions, which react with the solvent SH preferentially in the position para to the nitrogen or oxygen, respectively.

Abstract

Whereas 2H-benztriazoles are photochemically stable, 1H-benztriazoles yield biradicals after spliting of nitrogen. These biradicals attack aromatic substrates such as anisole, toluene, fluorobenzene or benzonitrile preferentially in the o- and p-positions with formation of the corresponding o-aminobiphenyls (cf. schemes 2-5). With a deficiency of aromatic substrate, attack at the o-position is strongly favored (cf. Figures 1, 2). Thereafter the very complex photochemistry of 3,5-diaryl-2-isoxazolines will be discussed (cf. schemes 7-9). This led to the discovery of the photochemical cycloaddition between 3-phenyl-2H-azirines and aldehydes, with formation of 3-oxazolines (cf. schemes 10, 11). The nitrile methylene ylides produced photochemically from azirines react, mainly in good yield, with substrates which contain cumulative (cf. schemes 15, 16) or activated (cf. schemes 12,13) double bonds. Noteworthy, is the photochemical incorporation of carbon dioxide, leading to the little known isoazlactones (scheme 15). After a short discussion of the photochemistry of the sydnones (cf. schemes 19-23), which has been only briefly investigated so far, the photolysis of indazoles, benzisoxazoles, and anthranils in strongly acid solution will be discussed (cf. schemes 24-27). These photochemical reactions give rise to aryl azenium ions or aryl oxenium ions, which react with the solvent SH preferentially in the position para to the nitrogen or oxygen, respectively.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:1973
Deposited On:09 Dec 2014 15:44
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 08:45
Publisher:SCIENCEDOMAIN International
ISSN:2231-3443
Funders:Schweizerischer Natioalfonds, Stiftung für wissenschaftliche Forschung der Universität Zürich
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1351/pac197333020339

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