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Cytomegalovirus serology and replication remain associated with solid organ graft rejection and graft loss in the era of prophylactic treatment


Stern, Martin; Hirsch, Hans; Cusini, Alexia; van Delden, Christian; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Boggian, Katia; Mueller, Nicolas J; Dickenmann, Michael (2014). Cytomegalovirus serology and replication remain associated with solid organ graft rejection and graft loss in the era of prophylactic treatment. Transplantation, 98(9):1013-1018.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication has been associated with more risk for solid organ graft rejection. We wondered whether this association still holds when patients at risk receive prophylactic treatment for CMV. METHODS We correlated CMV infection, biopsy-proven graft rejection, and graft loss in 1,414 patients receiving heart (n=97), kidney (n=917), liver (n=237), or lung (n=163) allografts reported to the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. RESULTS Recipients of all organs were at an increased risk for biopsy-proven graft rejection within 4 weeks after detection of CMV replication (hazard ratio [HR] after heart transplantation, 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-4.94, P<0.001; HR after kidney transplantation, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16-2.16, P=0.02; HR after liver transplantation, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.53-3.17, P<0.001; HR after lung transplantation, 5.83; 95% CI, 3.12-10.9, P<0.001. Relative hazards were comparable in patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic CMV infection. The CMV donor or recipient serological constellation also predicted the incidence of graft rejection after liver and lung transplantation, with significantly higher rates of rejection in transplants in which donor or recipient were CMV seropositive (non-D-/R-), compared with D- transplant or R- transplant (HR, 3.05; P=0.002 for liver and HR, 2.42; P=0.01 for lung transplants). Finally, graft loss occurred more frequently in non-D- or non-R- compared with D- transplant or R- transplant in all organs analyzed. Valganciclovir prophylactic treatment seemed to delay, but not prevent, graft loss in non-D- or non-R- transplants. CONCLUSION Cytomegalovirus replication and donor or recipient seroconstellation remains associated with graft rejection and graft loss in the era of prophylactic CMV treatment.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication has been associated with more risk for solid organ graft rejection. We wondered whether this association still holds when patients at risk receive prophylactic treatment for CMV. METHODS We correlated CMV infection, biopsy-proven graft rejection, and graft loss in 1,414 patients receiving heart (n=97), kidney (n=917), liver (n=237), or lung (n=163) allografts reported to the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. RESULTS Recipients of all organs were at an increased risk for biopsy-proven graft rejection within 4 weeks after detection of CMV replication (hazard ratio [HR] after heart transplantation, 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-4.94, P<0.001; HR after kidney transplantation, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16-2.16, P=0.02; HR after liver transplantation, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.53-3.17, P<0.001; HR after lung transplantation, 5.83; 95% CI, 3.12-10.9, P<0.001. Relative hazards were comparable in patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic CMV infection. The CMV donor or recipient serological constellation also predicted the incidence of graft rejection after liver and lung transplantation, with significantly higher rates of rejection in transplants in which donor or recipient were CMV seropositive (non-D-/R-), compared with D- transplant or R- transplant (HR, 3.05; P=0.002 for liver and HR, 2.42; P=0.01 for lung transplants). Finally, graft loss occurred more frequently in non-D- or non-R- compared with D- transplant or R- transplant in all organs analyzed. Valganciclovir prophylactic treatment seemed to delay, but not prevent, graft loss in non-D- or non-R- transplants. CONCLUSION Cytomegalovirus replication and donor or recipient seroconstellation remains associated with graft rejection and graft loss in the era of prophylactic CMV treatment.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Date:15 November 2014
Deposited On:11 Dec 2014 10:10
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 09:02
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0041-1337
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000000160
PubMed ID:24837540

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