# Graphic representation of the burden of suffering in dizziness patients

Weidt, Steffi; Bruehl, Annette Beatrix; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Straumann, Dominik; Hegemann, Stefan; Büchi, Stefan; Rufer, Michael (2014). Graphic representation of the burden of suffering in dizziness patients. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12:184.

## Abstract

Background: Dizziness adversely affects an individual?s well-being. However, its impact is not only influenced by its physical manifestations, but also by its subjective importance to the patient. Appropriately assessing the subjective burden of dizziness is difficult. The Pictorial-Representation of Illness- and Self-Measure (PRISM), on which patients illustrate the distance between their self? and their illness, has been documented to indicate the perception of suffering in several different illnesses. Our study objectives were (1) to assess how useful the PRISM is in patients with dizziness; and (2) to determine which clinical, emotional and sociodemographic factors contribute to their burden of suffering. Methods: A total of 177 outpatients with dizziness completed this cross-sectional study, in which the following measures were assessed: degree of suffering rated using the PRISM tool; dizziness-related variables, like emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression-Scale, HADS); self-perceived severity of dizziness (Dizziness Handicap Inventory, DHI); and sociodemographic variables. Results: PRISM-rated intensity of suffering was correlated with dizziness severity, in that the more severe dizziness was rated by patients, the shorter the distance between self? and dizziness (the higher the suffering; r?=??0.6, p?<?0.001). Regression analyses identified the strongest association between PRISM-rated suffering and DHI (p?<?0.001), explaining 34% of the variance in PRISM-rated suffering. The HADS score and having continuous dizziness versus transient attacks each explained roughly 2% of the variance in suffering. No significant associations with PRISM-rated suffering were found for sociodemographic variables or other dizziness characteristics. Conclusions: The PRISM is applicable to patients suffering from dizziness, demonstrating a significant association with the severity of dizziness and reliably distinguishing between those with low and high intensities of dizziness. The PRISM also reflects the multi-factorial aspects of suffering. Due to its immediate, timesaving and economical use, the PRISM could enable clinicians to identify vulnerable patients at risk for chronic symptoms and distress. Whether the PRISM can detect improvements and worsening of symptoms during treatment warrants further research.

## Abstract

Background: Dizziness adversely affects an individual?s well-being. However, its impact is not only influenced by its physical manifestations, but also by its subjective importance to the patient. Appropriately assessing the subjective burden of dizziness is difficult. The Pictorial-Representation of Illness- and Self-Measure (PRISM), on which patients illustrate the distance between their self? and their illness, has been documented to indicate the perception of suffering in several different illnesses. Our study objectives were (1) to assess how useful the PRISM is in patients with dizziness; and (2) to determine which clinical, emotional and sociodemographic factors contribute to their burden of suffering. Methods: A total of 177 outpatients with dizziness completed this cross-sectional study, in which the following measures were assessed: degree of suffering rated using the PRISM tool; dizziness-related variables, like emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression-Scale, HADS); self-perceived severity of dizziness (Dizziness Handicap Inventory, DHI); and sociodemographic variables. Results: PRISM-rated intensity of suffering was correlated with dizziness severity, in that the more severe dizziness was rated by patients, the shorter the distance between self? and dizziness (the higher the suffering; r?=??0.6, p?<?0.001). Regression analyses identified the strongest association between PRISM-rated suffering and DHI (p?<?0.001), explaining 34% of the variance in PRISM-rated suffering. The HADS score and having continuous dizziness versus transient attacks each explained roughly 2% of the variance in suffering. No significant associations with PRISM-rated suffering were found for sociodemographic variables or other dizziness characteristics. Conclusions: The PRISM is applicable to patients suffering from dizziness, demonstrating a significant association with the severity of dizziness and reliably distinguishing between those with low and high intensities of dizziness. The PRISM also reflects the multi-factorial aspects of suffering. Due to its immediate, timesaving and economical use, the PRISM could enable clinicians to identify vulnerable patients at risk for chronic symptoms and distress. Whether the PRISM can detect improvements and worsening of symptoms during treatment warrants further research.

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Item Type: Journal Article, refereed, original work 04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology 04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Klinik für Konsiliarpsychiatrie und Psychosomatik 610 Medicine & health English 2014 14 Jan 2015 12:05 14 Feb 2018 22:24 BioMed Central 1477-7525 Gold PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-014-0184-2 25524259