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Neurocognitive profiles in help-seeking individuals: comparison of risk for psychosis and bipolar disorder criteria


Metzler, S; Dvorsky, D; Wyss, C; Müller, M; Traber-Walker, N; Walitza, S; Theodoridou, A; Rössler, W; Heekeren, K (2014). Neurocognitive profiles in help-seeking individuals: comparison of risk for psychosis and bipolar disorder criteria. Psychological Medicine, 44(16):3543-3555.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive deficits are important aspects of the schizophrenic disorders because they have a strong impact on social and vocational outcomes. We expanded on previous research by focusing on the neurocognitive profiles of persons at high risk (HR) or ultra-high risk (UHR) for schizophrenic and affective psychoses. Our main aim was to determine whether neurocognitive measures are sufficiently sensitive to predict a group affiliation based on deficits in functional domains.
METHOD: This study included 207 help-seeking individuals identified as HR (n = 75), UHR (n = 102) or at high risk for bipolar disorder (HRBip; n = 30), who were compared with persons comprising a matched, healthy control group (CG; n = 50). Neuropsychological variables were sorted according to their load in a factor analysis and were compared among groups. In addition, the likelihood of group membership was estimated using logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: The performance of HR and HRBip participants was comparable, and intermediate between the controls and UHR. The domain of processing speed was most sensitive in discriminating HR and UHR [odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.78, p = 0.004] whereas learning and memory deficits predicted a conversion to schizophrenic psychosis (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.25-0.87, p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Performances on neurocognitive tests differed among our three at-risk groups and may therefore be useful in predicting psychosis. Overall, cognition had a profound effect on the extent of general functioning and satisfaction with life for subjects at risk of psychosis. Thus, this factor should become a treatment target in itself.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive deficits are important aspects of the schizophrenic disorders because they have a strong impact on social and vocational outcomes. We expanded on previous research by focusing on the neurocognitive profiles of persons at high risk (HR) or ultra-high risk (UHR) for schizophrenic and affective psychoses. Our main aim was to determine whether neurocognitive measures are sufficiently sensitive to predict a group affiliation based on deficits in functional domains.
METHOD: This study included 207 help-seeking individuals identified as HR (n = 75), UHR (n = 102) or at high risk for bipolar disorder (HRBip; n = 30), who were compared with persons comprising a matched, healthy control group (CG; n = 50). Neuropsychological variables were sorted according to their load in a factor analysis and were compared among groups. In addition, the likelihood of group membership was estimated using logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: The performance of HR and HRBip participants was comparable, and intermediate between the controls and UHR. The domain of processing speed was most sensitive in discriminating HR and UHR [odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.78, p = 0.004] whereas learning and memory deficits predicted a conversion to schizophrenic psychosis (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.25-0.87, p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Performances on neurocognitive tests differed among our three at-risk groups and may therefore be useful in predicting psychosis. Overall, cognition had a profound effect on the extent of general functioning and satisfaction with life for subjects at risk of psychosis. Thus, this factor should become a treatment target in itself.

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6 citations in Web of Science®
5 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:16 Jan 2015 15:28
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:52
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
ISSN:0033-2917
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291714001007
PubMed ID:25066246

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