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The WHO ultrasonography protocol for assessing hepatic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni. acceptance and evolution over 12 years


el Scheich, Tarik; Holtfreter, Martha C; Ekamp, Hendrik; Singh, Daman D; Mota, Rodrigo; Hatz, Christoph; Richter, Joachim (2014). The WHO ultrasonography protocol for assessing hepatic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni. acceptance and evolution over 12 years. Parasitology Research, 113(11):3915-3925.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to review the worldwide acceptance of the World Health Organization (WHO) ultrasound protocol for assessing hepatosplenic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni since its publication in 2000. A PubMed literature research using the keywords "schistosomiasis and ultrasound," "schistosomiasis and ultrasonography," and "S. mansoni and ultrasound" from 2001 to 2012 was performed. Case reports, reviews, reports on abnormalities due to parasites other than S. mansoni, organ involvement other than the human liver, and reports where ultrasound method was not described were excluded. Six studies were retrieved from other Brazilian sources. Sixty studies on 37,424 patients from 15 countries were analyzed. The WHO protocol was applied with increasing frequency from 43.75% in the years 2001 to 2004 to 84.61% in 2009 to 2012. Results obtained using the pictorial image pattern approach of the protocol are reported in 38/41 studies, whereas measurements of portal branch walls were applied in 19/41 and results reported in 2/41 studies only. The practical usefulness of the pictorial approach of the WHO protocol is confirmed by its wide acceptance. This approach alone proved satisfactory in terms of reproducibility, assessment of evolution of pathology, and comparability between different settings. The measurements of portal branches, also part of the protocol, may be omitted without losing relevant information since results obtained by these measurements are nonspecific. This would save resources by reducing the time required for each examination. It is also more feasible for examiners who are not specialized in medical imaging. As with all protocols, incipient liver fibrosis is difficult to distinguish from normal ultrasound findings of the liver. The ability of this protocol to predict complications in severe cases should be further evaluated in a higher number of patients.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to review the worldwide acceptance of the World Health Organization (WHO) ultrasound protocol for assessing hepatosplenic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni since its publication in 2000. A PubMed literature research using the keywords "schistosomiasis and ultrasound," "schistosomiasis and ultrasonography," and "S. mansoni and ultrasound" from 2001 to 2012 was performed. Case reports, reviews, reports on abnormalities due to parasites other than S. mansoni, organ involvement other than the human liver, and reports where ultrasound method was not described were excluded. Six studies were retrieved from other Brazilian sources. Sixty studies on 37,424 patients from 15 countries were analyzed. The WHO protocol was applied with increasing frequency from 43.75% in the years 2001 to 2004 to 84.61% in 2009 to 2012. Results obtained using the pictorial image pattern approach of the protocol are reported in 38/41 studies, whereas measurements of portal branch walls were applied in 19/41 and results reported in 2/41 studies only. The practical usefulness of the pictorial approach of the WHO protocol is confirmed by its wide acceptance. This approach alone proved satisfactory in terms of reproducibility, assessment of evolution of pathology, and comparability between different settings. The measurements of portal branches, also part of the protocol, may be omitted without losing relevant information since results obtained by these measurements are nonspecific. This would save resources by reducing the time required for each examination. It is also more feasible for examiners who are not specialized in medical imaging. As with all protocols, incipient liver fibrosis is difficult to distinguish from normal ultrasound findings of the liver. The ability of this protocol to predict complications in severe cases should be further evaluated in a higher number of patients.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:November 2014
Deposited On:23 Jan 2015 13:26
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:52
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0932-0113
Additional Information:The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-4117-0
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-4117-0
PubMed ID:25260691

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