Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) were originally discovered as by-products and mediators of chronic inflammation such as in atherosclerosis. Over the last years, an increasing body of evidence led to the notion that OxPL not only contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory processes but in addition play an integral role as modulators of inflammation during acute infections. Thereby, host defense mechanisms involve the generation of oxygen radicals that oxidize ubiquitously present phospholipids, which in turn act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These OxPL-derived DAMPs can exhibit both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions that ultimately alter the host response to pathogens. In this review, we summarize the currently available data on the role of OxPL in infectious diseases.