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Sinus floor elevation utilizing the transalveolar approach


Pjetursson, Bjarni E; Lang, Niklaus P (2014). Sinus floor elevation utilizing the transalveolar approach. Periodontology 2000, 66(1):59-71.

Abstract

A transalveolar approach for sinus floor elevation with subsequent placement of dental implants was first suggested by Tatum in 1986. In 1994, Summers described a different transalveolar approach using a set of tapered osteotomes with increasing diameters. The transalveolar approach of sinus floor elevation, also referred to as 'osteotome sinus floor elevation', the 'Summers technique' or the 'Crestal approach', may be considered as being more conservative and less invasive than the conventional lateral window approach. This is reflected by the fact that more than nine out of 10 patients who experienced the surgical procedure would be willing to undergo it again. The main indication for transalveolar sinus floor elevation is reduced residual bone height, which does not allow standard implant placement. Contraindications for transalveolar sinus floor elevation may be intra-oral, local or medical. The surgical approach utilized over the last two decades is the technique described by Summers, with or without minor modifications. The surgical care after implant placement using the osteotome technique is similar to the surgical care after standard implant placement. The patients are usually advised to take antibiotic prophylaxis and to utilize antiseptic rinses. The main complications reported after performing a transalveolar sinus floor elevation were perforation of the Schneiderian membrane in 3.8% of patients and postoperative infections in 0.8% of patients. Other complications reported were postoperative hemorrhage, nasal bleeding, blocked nose, hematomas and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Whether it is necessary to use grafting material to maintain space for new bone formation after elevating the sinus membrane utilizing the osteotome technique is still controversial. Positive outcomes have been reported with and without using grafting material. A prospective study, evaluating both approaches, concluded that significantly more bone gain was seen when grafting material was used (4.1 mm mean bone gain compared with 1.7 mm when no grafting material was utilized). In a systematic review, including 19 studies reporting on 4388 implants inserted using the transalveolar sinus floor elevation technique, the 3-year implant survival rate was 92.8% (95% confidence interval: 87.4-96.0%). Furthermore, a subject-based analysis of the same material revealed an annual failure rate of 3.7%. Hence, one in 10 subjects experienced implant loss over 3 years. Several of the included studies demonstrated that transalveolar sinus floor elevation was most predictable when the residual alveolar bone height was ≥ 5 mm and the sinus floor anatomy was relatively flat.

Abstract

A transalveolar approach for sinus floor elevation with subsequent placement of dental implants was first suggested by Tatum in 1986. In 1994, Summers described a different transalveolar approach using a set of tapered osteotomes with increasing diameters. The transalveolar approach of sinus floor elevation, also referred to as 'osteotome sinus floor elevation', the 'Summers technique' or the 'Crestal approach', may be considered as being more conservative and less invasive than the conventional lateral window approach. This is reflected by the fact that more than nine out of 10 patients who experienced the surgical procedure would be willing to undergo it again. The main indication for transalveolar sinus floor elevation is reduced residual bone height, which does not allow standard implant placement. Contraindications for transalveolar sinus floor elevation may be intra-oral, local or medical. The surgical approach utilized over the last two decades is the technique described by Summers, with or without minor modifications. The surgical care after implant placement using the osteotome technique is similar to the surgical care after standard implant placement. The patients are usually advised to take antibiotic prophylaxis and to utilize antiseptic rinses. The main complications reported after performing a transalveolar sinus floor elevation were perforation of the Schneiderian membrane in 3.8% of patients and postoperative infections in 0.8% of patients. Other complications reported were postoperative hemorrhage, nasal bleeding, blocked nose, hematomas and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Whether it is necessary to use grafting material to maintain space for new bone formation after elevating the sinus membrane utilizing the osteotome technique is still controversial. Positive outcomes have been reported with and without using grafting material. A prospective study, evaluating both approaches, concluded that significantly more bone gain was seen when grafting material was used (4.1 mm mean bone gain compared with 1.7 mm when no grafting material was utilized). In a systematic review, including 19 studies reporting on 4388 implants inserted using the transalveolar sinus floor elevation technique, the 3-year implant survival rate was 92.8% (95% confidence interval: 87.4-96.0%). Furthermore, a subject-based analysis of the same material revealed an annual failure rate of 3.7%. Hence, one in 10 subjects experienced implant loss over 3 years. Several of the included studies demonstrated that transalveolar sinus floor elevation was most predictable when the residual alveolar bone height was ≥ 5 mm and the sinus floor anatomy was relatively flat.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:30 Jan 2015 09:24
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0906-6713
Additional Information:This is the accepted version of the following article: [Pjetursson, B. E. and Lang, N. P. (2014), Sinus floor elevation utilizing the transalveolar approach. Periodontology 2000, 66: 59–71. doi: 10.1111/prd.12043], which has been published in final form at [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/prd.12043/abstract].
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/prd.12043
PubMed ID:25123761

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