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Clinical and genetic studies in a family with a novel mutation in the sepiapterin reductase gene


Koht, J; Rengmark, A; Opladen, T; Bjørnarå, K A; Selberg, T; Tallaksen, C M E; Blau, N; Toft, M (2014). Clinical and genetic studies in a family with a novel mutation in the sepiapterin reductase gene. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum, 129(s198):7-12.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Sepiapterin reductase deficiency is a rare, but treatable inherited disorder of tetrahydrobiopterin and neurotransmitter metabolism. This disorder is most probably underdiagnosed. To date, only 44 cases have been described in the literature. We present the clinical and genetic investigations in a family with a complex movement disorder.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined two affected sisters and three healthy family members. The cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed for neurotransmitter and pterins, and the sepiapterin reductase gene (SPR) was sequenced.
RESULTS: The sisters had a complex movement disorders with dystonia and diurnal fluctuations. Both had oculogyric crises, and the older sister also hypersomnia. Both sisters had raised prolactin levels twice above the reference level. One sister had a dramatic response to levodopa, the other responded, but developed dyskinesia despite low doses. Both patients improved dramatically over time with levodopa (2.3 and 1.5 mg/kg/day). Very low levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and increased levels of sepiapterin and dihydrobiopterin were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid before treatment. DNA analyses revealed a novel homozygous mutation in exon 2 in the SPR gene, c.364A>G/p.(Tyr123Cys), located in a highly conserved region in the gene. Both parents and the healthy sister were carriers for the same mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: A new homozygous mutation in the SPR gene was found in two sisters with dopa-responsive dystonia. This important and treatable neurotransmitter disorder must be considered in patients with a complex movement disorder with diurnal fluctuations with or without intellectual impairment. Patients with these symptoms should undergo levodopa trial, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, and genetic analyses.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Sepiapterin reductase deficiency is a rare, but treatable inherited disorder of tetrahydrobiopterin and neurotransmitter metabolism. This disorder is most probably underdiagnosed. To date, only 44 cases have been described in the literature. We present the clinical and genetic investigations in a family with a complex movement disorder.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined two affected sisters and three healthy family members. The cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed for neurotransmitter and pterins, and the sepiapterin reductase gene (SPR) was sequenced.
RESULTS: The sisters had a complex movement disorders with dystonia and diurnal fluctuations. Both had oculogyric crises, and the older sister also hypersomnia. Both sisters had raised prolactin levels twice above the reference level. One sister had a dramatic response to levodopa, the other responded, but developed dyskinesia despite low doses. Both patients improved dramatically over time with levodopa (2.3 and 1.5 mg/kg/day). Very low levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and increased levels of sepiapterin and dihydrobiopterin were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid before treatment. DNA analyses revealed a novel homozygous mutation in exon 2 in the SPR gene, c.364A>G/p.(Tyr123Cys), located in a highly conserved region in the gene. Both parents and the healthy sister were carriers for the same mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: A new homozygous mutation in the SPR gene was found in two sisters with dopa-responsive dystonia. This important and treatable neurotransmitter disorder must be considered in patients with a complex movement disorder with diurnal fluctuations with or without intellectual impairment. Patients with these symptoms should undergo levodopa trial, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, and genetic analyses.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:April 2014
Deposited On:13 Feb 2015 14:37
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:04
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0065-1427
Additional Information:Special Issue: Selected Articles from the Annual Meeting of the Norwegian Neurological Association, Oslo, November 2013. This supplement was published with support from the Norwegian Neurological Society
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/ane.12230
PubMed ID:24588500

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