The life cycle of the zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis depends on canids (mainly red foxes) as definitive hosts and on their specific predation on rodent species (intermediate hosts). Host densities and predation rates are key drivers for infection with parasite eggs. We demonstrate that they strongly depend on multi-faceted human-wildlife interactions: vaccination against rabies, elimination of top predators, and changing attitude towards wildlife (feeding) contribute to high fox densities. The absence of large canids, low hunting pressure, and positive attitudes towards foxes modify their anti-predator response ('landscape of fear'), promoting their tameness, which in turn facilitates the colonization of residential areas and modifies parasite transmission. Such human factors should be considered in the assessment of any intervention and prevention strategy.